Form 20-F
falseFYAurora Mobile Ltd0001737339For equity securities accounted for under the measurement alternative, when there are observable price changes in orderly transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer, the investments are re-measured to fair value. The Company recognized impairment charges of long-term investments during the year ended December 31, 2021.Starting from January 1, 2021, the Company has fully exited the Targeted Marketing business and this balance represents the receivables the Company acts as agent and collects on behalf of third party advertising companies for targeted marketing related services.Starting from January 1, 2021, the Company has fully exited the Targeted Marketing business and this balance represents the payments to third party advertising companies for targeted marketing related services as the Company acts as agent.For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, the Company recognized impairment charges on loans granted to equity investees of nil, RMB4,500 and RMB528 (US$83). The Company evaluates the impairment of the equity investments without readily determinable fair value along with loans the Company granted to those investees. 0001737339 2021-01-01 2021-12-31 0001737339 2021-12-31 0001737339 2020-12-31 0001737339 2019-12-31 0001737339 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001737339 2020-01-01 2020-12-31 0001737339 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001737339 2018-12-31 0001737339 us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember 2020-12-31 0001737339 srt:ParentCompanyMember 2020-12-31 0001737339 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2020-12-31 0001737339 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member 2020-12-31 0001737339 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember 2020-12-31 0001737339 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member 2020-12-31 0001737339 jg:GuangzhouTianlangNetworkTechnologyCoLtdMember 2020-12-31 0001737339 jg:OfficeFurnitureAndEquipmentMember 2020-12-31 0001737339 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Table of Contents
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM
20-F
 
 
(Mark One)
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
                    
For the transition period from
                    
to
                    
Commission file num
ber:
001-38587
 
 
Aurora Mobile Limited
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
N/A
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Cayman Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
14/F, China Certification and Inspection Building,
No. 8, Keji South 12th Road, Nanshan District
Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057
People’s Republic of China
(Address of principal executive offices)
Shan-Nen Bong,
Chief Financial Officer 14/F, China Certification and Inspection Building,

No. 8, Keji South 12th Road, Nanshan District
Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057
People’s Republic of China
Phone: +86
755-8388-1462
Email:
bongsn@jiguang.cn
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of Each Class
 
Trading Symbol
 
Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
American depositary shares, every three of which represent two Class A common shares
Class A common shares, par value US$0.0001 per share*
 
JG
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(The
Nasdaq
Global Market)
 
*
Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on the Nasdaq Global Market of American depositary shares.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
 
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:
As of December 31, 2021, there were 79,036,462 common shares outstanding, par value of US$0.0001 per share, being the sum of 62,036,273 Class A common shares (excluding treasury shares), par value of US$0.0001 per share and 17,000,189 Class B common shares, par value of US$0.0001 per share.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
    ☐  Yes    ☒  No
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    ☐  Yes    ☒  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    
 
☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
       
Non-accelerated
filer
     Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    ☐  Yes    ☒  No
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP  ☒
 
        International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
 
  
  
Other  ☐
 
        by the International Accounting Standards Board
 
  
  
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.     ☐ Item 17    ☐  Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act).    ☐  Yes    ☒  No
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.     ☐  Yes    ☐  No
 
 
 


Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  
 
1
 
  
 
2
 
  
 
3
 
Item 1.
 
  
 
3
 
Item 2.
 
  
 
3
 
Item 3.
 
  
 
3
 
Item 4.
 
  
 
58
 
Item 4A.
 
  
 
95
 
Item 5.
 
  
 
95
 
Item 6.
 
  
 
114
 
Item 7.
 
  
 
124
 
Item 8.
 
  
 
127
 
Item 9.
 
  
 
128
 
Item 10.
 
  
 
129
 
Item 11.
 
  
 
139
 
Item 12.
 
  
 
140
 
PART II
  
 
142
 
Item 13.
 
  
 
142
 
Item 14.
 
  
 
142
 
Item 15.
 
  
 
142
 
Item 16A.
 
  
 
143
 
Item 16B.
 
  
 
143
 
Item 16C.
 
  
 
144
 
Item 16D.
 
  
 
144
 
Item 16E.
 
  
 
144
 
Item 16F.
 
  
 
144
 
Item 16G.
 
  
 
144
 
Item 16H.
 
  
 
145
 
Item 16I.
 
  
 
145
 
PART III
  
 
146
 
Item 17.
 
  
 
146
 
Item 18.
 
  
 
146
 
Item 19.
 
  
 
146
 
 
i

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
Unless otherwise indicated and except where the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report on Form
20-F
to:
 
   
“ADSs” are to our American depositary shares, every three of which represent two Class A common shares;
 
   
“Aurora” are to Aurora Mobile Limited;
 
   
“BVI” are to the British Virgin Islands;
 
   
“China” or the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;
 
   
“Class A common shares” are to our Class A common shares of par value US$0.0001 per share;
 
   
“Class B common shares” are to our Class B common shares of par value US$0.0001 per share;
 
   
“common shares” are to our common shares, par value US$0.0001 per share;
 
   
“cumulative app installations” as of a certain date are to the cumulative number of apps that have installed one or more of the SDKs offered as part of our developer services as of the same date;
 
   
“customers” in a given period are to those that purchase at least one of our
paid-for
SAAS Businesses or targeted marketing during the same period. We treat each contracting party as a separate customer although it is possible that a company may have more than one contracting party to enter into contracts with us and multiple entities within one corporate group may use the same contracting party to enter into contracts with us;
 
   
“monthly active SDKs” in a given period are to the number of SDKs offered as part of our developer services and integrated into apps that have been installed on mobile devices, which have established active connection with our servers in the last month of the same period;
 
   
“monthly active unique mobile devices” in a given period are to the number of unique mobile devices that have at least one app establishing active connection with our servers in the last month of the same period;
 
   
“our SAAS Businesses” are to our developer services and vertical applications;
 
   
“our VIE” are to Shenzhen Hexun Huagu Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Hexun Huagu;
 
   
“our WFOE” are to JPush Information Consultation (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., or Shenzhen JPush;
 
   
“RMB” and “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China;
 
   
“SAAS” are to
Software-as-a-Service;
 
   
“US$,” “U.S. dollars,” “$,” and “dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States; and
 
   
“we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” are to Aurora Mobile Limited, our Cayman Islands holding company, and its subsidiaries, and, when describing our operations and consolidated financial information, also include our VIE in China and its subsidiaries.
Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this annual report are made at a rate of RMB6.3726 to US$1.00, the exchange rate in effect as of December 30, 2021 as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all.
 
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report on Form
20-F
contains forward-looking statements that relate to our current expectations and views of future events. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. These statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigations Reform Act of 1995.
You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:
 
   
our goals and strategies;
 
   
our future business development, financial conditions and results of operations;
 
   
the expected growth of the mobile internet industry and the mobile app developer services market in China;
 
   
the expected growing application of big data technology in China, including in areas such as mobile online marketing, financial risk management, market intelligence and location-based intelligence services;
 
   
our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing;
 
   
our expectations regarding our relationships with app developers, customers, strategic partners and other stakeholders;
 
   
competition in our industry; and
 
   
relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry.
You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report and have filed as exhibits to this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. Other sections of this annual report discuss factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
 
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PART I
 
Item 1.
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
Not applicable.
 
Item 2.
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
Not applicable.
 
Item 3.
KEY INFORMATION
Our Holding Company Structure and Contractual Arrangements with Our VIE
Aurora Mobile Limited is not an operating company in China but a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in its variable interest entity, or VIE. We conduct our operations in China primarily through our PRC subsidiary and our VIE. PRC laws and regulations restrict and impose conditions on foreign investment in businesses providing certain value-added telecommunications services in China. Accordingly, we operate these businesses in China through our VIE. Investors in our ADSs are not purchasing equity interest in our operating entities in China but instead are purchasing equity interest in a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. As used in this annual report, “Aurora” refers to Aurora Mobile Limited, and “we,” “us,” “our company,” or “our” refers to Aurora Mobile Limited and its subsidiaries, and, when describing our operations and consolidated financial information, also includes our VIE and its subsidiaries in China. We refer to Shenzhen Hexun Huagu Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Hexun Huagu, as “our VIE”, and to JPush Information Consultation (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., or Shenzhen JPush, as “our WFOE” in this annual report. Investors in our ADSs are not purchasing equity interest in our operating entities in China but instead are purchasing equity interest in a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands.
We, through our WFOE, have entered into a series of contractual arrangements with our VIE and the nominee shareholders of our VIE. These contractual arrangements enable us to: (i) exercise effective control over our VIE; (ii) receive the economic benefits that could potentially be significant to our VIE in consideration for the services provided by our WFOE; and (iii) hold an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in and assets of our VIE when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. Because of these contractual arrangements, we are the primary beneficiary of our VIE and hence consolidate its financial results with ours under U.S. GAAP. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, we derived 98.6%, 97.7% and 95.0% of our external revenues from our VIE, respectively.
These contractual agreements include exclusive option agreements, exclusive business cooperation agreement, financial support agreement, shareholder voting proxy agreement and equity interest pledge agreements. Pursuant to the exclusive option agreements, each shareholder of our VIE has irrevocably granted our WFOE an exclusive option to purchase all or part of his equity interests in our VIE, and our VIE has irrevocably granted our WFOE an exclusive option to purchase all or part of its assets. Pursuant to the exclusive business cooperation agreement, our WFOE has the exclusive right to provide our VIE comprehensive business support, technical services, consulting services and other services. Pursuant to the financial support agreement, we undertake to provide unlimited financial support to our VIE to the extent permissible under the applicable PRC laws and regulations, whether or not any operational loss is actually incurred by our VIE. Each of the shareholders of our VIE has also executed a shareholder voting proxy agreement to irrevocably authorize our company to act as
his attorney-in-fact to
exercise all of his rights as a shareholder of our VIE. Pursuant to the equity interest pledge agreements, the shareholders of our VIE have pledged 100% equity interests in our VIE to our WFOE to guarantee performance by the shareholders of their obligations under the exclusive option agreements, the shareholder voting proxy agreement and the financial support agreement, as well as the performance by our VIE of its obligations under the exclusive business cooperation agreement and the exclusive option agreements. For a summary of the material provisions of the contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure.”
However, the contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our VIE, and we may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements. In addition, these agreements have not been tested in China courts. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders for substantially all of our business operation, which may not be as effective as direct ownership” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—The shareholders of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.”
 
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The legal environment in the PRC is not as developed as in other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability, as a Cayman holding company, to enforce these contractual arrangements and doing so may be quite costly. There are also substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules regarding the status of the rights of our Cayman Islands holding company with respect to its contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. If we or our VIE are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system and changes in laws and regulations in China could adversely affect us,” “—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating some of our business operations in China do not comply with PRC regulations relating to the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties, or be forced to relinquish our interest in those operations,” and “—Our business may be significantly affected by the newly enacted PRC Foreign Investment Law.”
Our corporate structure is subject to risks associated with our contractual arrangements with our VIE. If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with our VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries and VIE, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with our VIE and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of our VIE and our company as a whole. For a detailed description of the risks associated with our corporate structure, please refer to risks disclosed under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”
In addition, our VIE is owned principally by Mr. Weidong Luo, who hold 80% of our VIE. Mr. Luo also has 76. 4% of the total voting power of Aurora. Accordingly, the enforceability of the various contracts described above by our company against our VIE is dependent upon Mr. Luo. If he fails to perform his obligations under the contractual arrangements, we could be unable to enforce the contractual arrangements that give us effective control over our VIE. If this happens, we would need to deconsolidate our VIE. The majority of our assets, including the necessary licenses to conduct business in China are held by our VIE. A significant part of our revenues is generated by our VIE. An event that results in the deconsolidation of our VIE would have a material effect on our operations and result in the value of the securities diminish substantially or even become worthless. For a detailed description of the risks associated with our corporate structure, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”
We face various risks and uncertainties related to doing business in China. Our business operations are primarily conducted in China, and we are subject to complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations. For example, we face risks associated with regulatory approvals on offshore offerings, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, and oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of inspection by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, on our auditors as determined by the announcement of the PCAOB issued on December 16, 2021. This may impact our ability to conduct certain businesses, accept foreign investments, or list on a United States or other foreign exchange. These risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to continue to offer securities to investors, or cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For a detailed description of risks related to doing business in China, please refer to risks disclosed under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China.”
PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations, including data security or anti-monopoly related regulations, in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government’s significant oversight and discretion over our business operation could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs.”
 
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Permissions Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations
We conduct our business in China through our subsidiaries and our VIE in China. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. As of the date of this annual report, and except otherwise disclosed in this annual report, our PRC subsidiaries and VIE have obtained the requisite licenses and permits from the PRC government authorities that are material for the business operations of our holding company and our VIE in China, including, among others, two value-added telecommunication business licenses covering different scope of operations and a foreign-related investigation license. Our VIE may also be required to obtain the personal credit reporting business license. The PRC government has adopted several regulations governing personal credit reporting businesses. According to the Administrative Regulations on the Credit Reporting Industry, which was promulgated by the State Council and became effective in 2013, “personal credit reporting business” means the activities of collecting, organizing, storing and processing “information related to the credit standing” of individuals as well as providing the information to others, and a “credit reporting agency” refers to a duly established agency whose primary business is credit reporting. Under the Administrative Regulations on the Credit Reporting Industry and the Administrative Measures for Credit Reporting Agencies, the latter of which was promulgated by the People’s Bank of China and became effective in 2013, no entity may engage in personal credit reporting business without approval by the credit reporting industry regulatory department under the State Council. On September 27, 2021, the PBOC promulgated the Administrative Measures for Credit Information Services, or the Credit Information Services Measures, which took effect on January 1, 2022. Pursuant to the Credit Information Services Measures, Credit Information Services, shall mean the collection, sorting, retention, and processing of credit information of enterprises and individuals, and the provision of the foregoing information to information users. Credit information, shall mean the basic individual information, lending information and other relevant information used for identification and determination of creditworthiness status of enterprises and individuals, and collected pursuant to the law for the purpose of providing services for financial activities, as well as the analyzed and evaluated information formed based on the foregoing information. Persons engaging in personal credit information services shall obtain the personal credit information organization license issued by the PBOC pursuant to the Credit Information Services Measures. Our VIE provides financial risk management solutions to financial institutions as well as emerging technology companies based on device-level mobile behavior data. Due to the lack of further interpretations of the current regulations governing personal credit reporting businesses, the exact definition and scope of “information related to credit standing” and “personal credit reporting business” under the current regulations are unclear. It is therefore uncertain whether our VIE would be deemed to engage in personal credit reporting business because of our financial risk management solutions. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been subject to any fines or other penalties under any PRC laws or regulations related to personal credit reporting business. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Credit Reporting.” Given the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of relevant laws and regulations and the enforcement practice by relevant government authorities, we may be required to obtain additional licenses, permits, filings or approvals for the functions and services of our platform in the future. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet-related businesses and companies, and any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.”
Furthermore, except as disclosed in this annual report, in connection with our issuance of securities to foreign investors, under current PRC laws, regulations and regulatory rules, as of the date of this annual report, we, our PRC subsidiaries and our VIE, (i) are not required to obtain permissions from the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, and (ii) have not received or were denied such requisite permissions by any PRC authority. We are subject to the risks of uncertainty of any future actions of the PRC government in this regard including the risk that we inadvertently conclude that the permission or approvals discussed here are not required, that applicable laws, regulations or interpretations change such that we are required to obtain approvals in the future.
 
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However, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. On December 28, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China published the Measures for Cybersecurity Review, or Cybersecurity Review Measures, which replaced the current Measures for Cybersecurity Review after it was adopted and became effective on February 15, 2022. The Cybersecurity Review Measures, among others, stipulate that if an operator has personal information of over one million users and intends to be listed in a foreign country, it must be subject to the cybersecurity review. The Cybersecurity Review Measures remain unclear on whether the relevant requirements will be applicable to further equity or debt offerings by companies that have completed the initial public offering in the United States. We cannot assure you the clear impact of the Cybersecurity Review Measures, or the authorities would hold the same opinions with us regarding the newly-effective laws, and we will closely monitor and assess the statutory developments in this regard. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Our and our VIE’s business generates and processes a large amount of data, and we are required to comply with PRC and other applicable laws relating to privacy and cybersecurity. The improper use or disclosure of data could have a material and adverse effect on our business and prospects.”
Under Cybersecurity Review Measures and other PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations, critical information infrastructure operators that intend to purchase internet products and services that affect or may affect national security must be subject to the cybersecurity review. As advised by our PRC legal counsel, the PRC governmental authorities may have wide discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of these laws, including the interpretation of the scope of “critical information infrastructure operators.” See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Personal Information Protection.” In addition, the Cybersecurity Review Measures also stipulate that any data processor carrying out data processing activities that affect or may affect national security should also be subject to the cybersecurity review. In anticipation of the strengthened implementation of cybersecurity laws and regulations and the continued expansion of our business, we face potential risks if we are deemed as a critical information infrastructure operator under the PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations. In such case, we must fulfill certain obligations as required under the PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations, including, among others, storing personal information and important data collected and produced within the PRC territory during our operations in China, which we have fulfilled in our business, and we may be subject to review when purchasing internet products and services. Furthermore, we may be subject to review when conducting data processing activities, and may face challenges in addressing its requirements and make necessary changes to our internal policies and practices in data processing. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been involved in any investigations on cybersecurity review made by the Cyberspace Administration of China on such basis, and we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions in such respect.
On July 6, 2021, the relevant PRC governmental authorities made public the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law. These opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies. As these opinions are recently issued, official guidance and related implementation rules have not been issued yet and the interpretation of these opinions remains unclear at this stage. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The approval and/or other requirements of the CSRC or other PRC governmental authorities may be required in connection with an offering under PRC rules, regulations or policies, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or how soon we will be able to obtain such approval.” As of the date of this annual report, we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions regarding offshore offering from the CSRC or any other PRC governmental authorities.
In addition to the approval of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities that may be required in connection with our offshore offerings, our VIE is required to obtain and maintain applicable licenses and approvals from different regulatory authorities to provide their current services. Under the current PRC regulatory scheme, a number of regulatory agencies, including but not limited to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT, and Cyberspace Administration of China, jointly regulate all major aspects of the internet industry, including the mobile internet business. Operators must obtain government approvals and licenses for relevant telecommunications business. Our VIE also provides mobile app data analysis product to both domestic and foreign financial industry clients, and may be considered as engaging in foreign-related investigation business. As such, under the current PRC regulatory scheme, our VIE may be required to obtain a foreign-related investigation license. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Telecommunications Services and Foreign Ownership Restrictions” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Foreign-related Investigation.”
 
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Cash Flows through Our Organization
Aurora is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations primarily through our WFOE and our VIE. As a result, Aurora’s ability to pay dividends depends upon dividends paid by our WFOE. If our WFOE or any newly formed PRC subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us. In addition, our WFOE is permitted to pay dividends to us only out of its retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Under PRC law, each of our WFOE and our VIE is required to set aside at least 10% of
its after-tax profits
each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds until such reserve funds reach 50% of its registered capital. In addition, our WFOE may allocate a portion of
its after-tax profits
based on PRC accounting standards to enterprise expansion funds and staff bonus and welfare funds at its discretion, and our VIE may allocate a portion of
its after-tax profits
based on PRC accounting standards to a discretionary surplus fund at its discretion. The statutory reserve funds and the discretionary funds are not distributable as cash dividends. For more details, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Holding Company Structure.”
Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiaries and VIE are subject to certain restrictions with respect to paying dividends or otherwise transferring any of their net assets to us. Remittance of dividends by a wholly foreign-owned company out of China is subject to examination by the banks designated by SAFE. Our WFOE has not paid dividends and will not be able to pay dividends until it generates accumulated profits and meets the requirements for statutory reserve funds. The net liabilities of our VIE, in which we have no legal ownership, amounted to RMB81 million, RMB240 million and RMB326 million (US$51 million) as of December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. For restrictions and limitations on our ability to distribute earnings from our businesses, including subsidiaries and VIE, to Aurora and investors as well as the ability to settle amounts owed under the VIE agreements, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of our initial public offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business,” “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiary to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our cash balance effectively and affect the value of your investment.”
Our subsidiaries and our VIE conduct business transactions that include provision of services and intercompany loans, and collection of employee’s individual income tax from the exercise of share options, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. The cash flows occurred between our subsidiaries and our VIE are summarized below:
 
    
For the year ended December 31,
 
    
2019
    
2020
    
2021
 
                      
    
(RMB in thousands)
 
Loans from a subsidiary, JPush Information Consulting (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd. to the VIE
     197,943        —          80,000  
Repayment of loans and interests by the VIE to a subsidiary, JPush Information Consulting (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd.
     —          156,124        56,341  
Employee’s individual income tax from the exercise of share options from a subsidiary, JPush Information Consulting (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd. to the VIE
     5,133        878        2,630  
With respect to intercompany loans, our VIE received cash from our subsidiary amounted to RMB197.9 million, nil and RMB80.0 million (US$12.6 million) for the year ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively, and repaid cash to our subsidiary amounted to nil, RMB156.1 million and RMB56.3 million (US$8.8 million) for the year ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. With respect to the collection of employee’s individual income tax from the exercise of share options, our VIE received cash from our subsidiary amounted to RMB5.1 million, RMB0.9 million and RMB2.6 million (US$0.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively, which were then remitted to local tax authorities on behalf of our employees.
 
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Aurora has not declared or paid any cash dividends, nor does it has any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business. See “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Dividend Policy.” For PRC and United States federal income tax considerations of an investment in our ADSs, see “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation.”
Financial Information Related to Our VIE, Parent and Its Subsidiaries
The following tables provide condensed consolidating schedules depicting the financial position, cash flows, and results of operations for the parent, subsidiaries, the consolidated VIE, and any eliminating adjustments and consolidated totals (in thousands of RMB) as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021.
Selected Condensed Consolidating Schedule of Results of Operations
 
    
For the year ended December 31, 2021
 
    
Parent
   
VIE
   
Subsidiaries
   
Eliminating

adjustments
   
Consolidated

total
 
                                
    
(RMB in thousands)
 
Revenues
     —         351,243       116,306       (110,227     357,322  
Loss from subsidiaries and VIE
     (117,029     —         —         117,029       —    
Net loss
     (140,584     (100,782     (16,247     117,029       (140,584
 
    
For the year ended December 31, 2020
 
    
Parent
   
VIE
   
Subsidiaries
   
Eliminating

adjustments
   
Consolidated

total
 
                                
    
(RMB in thousands)
 
Revenues
     —         465,066       103,435       (96,887     471,614  
Loss from subsidiaries and VIE
     (193,109     —         —         193,109       —    
Net loss
     (225,075     (173,865     (19,244     193,109       (225,075
 
    
For the year ended December 31, 2019
 
    
Parent
   
VIE
   
Subsidiaries
    
Eliminating

adjustments
   
Consolidated

total
 
                                 
    
(RMB in thousands)
 
Revenues
     —         900,454       100,484        (94,480     906,458  
Loss from subsidiaries and VIE
     (93,328     —         —          93,328       —    
Net (loss)/income
     (109,841     (95,829     2,501        93,328       (109,841
Selected Condensed Consolidating Schedule of Financial Position
 
    
As of December 31, 2021
 
    
Parent
    
VIE
   
Subsidiaries
    
Eliminating

adjustments
   
Consolidated

total
 
                                  
    
(RMB in thousands)
 
Cash and cash equivalents
     6,724        55,946       27,882        —         90,552  
Restricted cash
     5,998        158,032       —          —         164,030  
Total current assets
     32,896        394,640       446,052        (492,452     381,136  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Investments in subsidiaries
     349,501        —         1,622,191        (1,971,692     —    
Total
non-current
assets
     401,447        144,382       1,917,264        (2,248,692     214,401  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total assets
     434,343        539,022       2,363,316        (2,741,144     595,537  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total liabilities
     218,900        865,202       60,174        (764,182     380,094  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total equity
     215,443        (326,180     2,303,142        (1,976,962     215,443  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total liabilities and equity
     434,343        539,022       2,363,316        (2,741,144     595,537  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
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As of December 31, 2020
 
    
Parent
    
VIE
   
Subsidiaries
    
Eliminating

adjustments
   
Consolidated

total
 
                                  
    
(RMB in thousands)
 
Cash and cash equivalents
     92,123        115,713       148,279        —         356,115  
Restricted cash
     —          115       —          —         115  
Total current assets
     101,564        296,573       425,555        (293,463     530,229  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Investments in subsidiaries
     439,276        —         1,660,152        (2,099,428     —    
Total
non-current
assets
     494,422        173,546       1,985,658        (2,396,428     257,198  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total assets
     595,986        470,119       2,411,213        (2,689,891     787,427  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total liabilities
     274,747        709,702       68,218        (586,479     466,188  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total equity
     321,239        (239,583     2,342,995        (2,103,412     321,239  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total liabilities and equity
     595,986        470,119       2,411,213        (2,689,891     787,427  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Selected Condensed Consolidating Schedules of Cash Flows
 
    
For the year ended December 31, 2021
 
    
Parent
   
VIE
   
Subsidiaries
   
Eliminating

adjustments
   
Consolidated

total
 
                                
    
(RMB in thousands)
 
Net cash (used in)/ provided by operating activities
     (24,383     68,336       (120,603     —         (76,650
Net cash (used in)/ provided by investing activities
     (4,859     (186     1,487       30,000       26,442  
Net cash provided by / (used in) financing activities
     (54,520     30,000       —         (30,000     (54,520
Effect of exchange rate fluctuation on cash and cash equivalents
     4,361       —         (1,281     —         3,080  
Net change in cash
     (79,401     98,150       (120,397     —         (101,648
Opening cash balance
     92,123       115,828       148,279       —         356,230  
Ending cash balance
     12,722       213,978       27,882       —         254,582  
 
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For the year ended December 31, 2020
 
    
Parent
   
VIE
   
Subsidiaries
   
Eliminating

adjustments
   
Consolidated

total
 
                                
    
(RMB in thousands)
 
Net cash (used in)/ provided by operating activities
     (17,412     168,971       (75,749     —         75,810  
Net cash (used in)/ provided by investing activities
     (6,525     (108,450     121,742       (151,182     (144,415
Net cash provided by / (used in) financing activities
     5,257       (156,124     —         151,182       315  
Effect of exchange rate fluctuation on cash and cash equivalents
     (3,686     —         (3,368     —         (7,054
Net change in cash
     (22,366     (95,603     42,625       —         (75,344
Opening cash balance
     114,489       211,429       105,656       —         431,574  
Ending cash balance
     92,123       115,828       148,279       —         356,230  
 
    
For the year ended December 31, 2019
 
    
Parent
   
VIE
   
Subsidiaries
   
Eliminating

adjustments
   
Consolidated

total
 
                                
    
(RMB in thousands)
 
Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities
     15,273       16,059       (57,090     —         (25,758
Net cash used in investing activities
     (95,412     (34,451     (294,921     335,818       (88,966
Net cash (used in)/provided by financing activities
     (33,845     197,943       137,837       (335,818     (33,883
Effect of exchange rate fluctuation on cash and cash equivalents
     (9,763     —         13,267       —         3,504  
Net change in cash
     (123,747     179,551       (200,907     —         (145,103
Opening cash balance
     238,236       31,878       306,563       —         576,677  
Ending cash balance
     114,489       211,429       105,656       —         431,574  
A.
Selected Financial Data
The following tables present the selected consolidated financial information for our company. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2020 and 2021 and selected consolidated cash flows data for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included in this annual report beginning on page
F-1.
The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, the selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and selected consolidated cash flows data for the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future periods. The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects”. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
 
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For the Year Ended December 31,
 
    
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
   
2021
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
US$
 
                                      
    
(in thousands, except for per share data)
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
                                                
Revenues
  
 
284,709
 
 
 
714,141
 
 
 
906,458
 
 
 
471,614
 
 
 
357,322
 
 
 
56,072
 
Cost of revenues
(1)
  
 
(213,370
 
 
(517,074
 
 
(649,596
 
 
(265,436
 
 
(92,393
 
 
(14,498
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Gross profit
  
 
71,339
 
 
 
197,067
 
 
 
256,862
 
 
 
206,178
 
 
 
264,929
 
 
 
41,574
 
Operating expenses:
(1)
                                                
Research and development expenses
  
 
(71,651
 
 
(134,358
 
 
(176,248
 
 
(174,597
 
 
(206,722
 
 
(32,439
Sales and marketing expenses
  
 
(59,673
 
 
(83,853
 
 
(118,548
 
 
(102,319
 
 
(116,415
 
 
(18,268
General and administrative expenses
  
 
(32,431
 
 
(71,641
 
 
(109,291
 
 
(119,087
 
 
(79,922
 
 
(12,542
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total operating expenses
  
 
(163,755
 
 
(289,852
 
 
(404,087
 
 
(396,003
 
 
(403,059
 
 
(63,249
Loss from operations
  
 
(92,416
 
 
(92,785
 
 
(147,225
 
 
(189,825
 
 
(138,130
 
 
(21,675
Loss before income taxes
  
 
(94,271
 
 
(66,167
 
 
(109,679
 
 
(224,989
 
 
(140,552
 
 
(22,055
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net loss
  
 
(90,291
 
 
(66,197
 
 
(109,841
 
 
(225,075
 
 
(140,584
 
 
(22,060
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net loss attributable to Aurora Mobile Limited’s shareholders
  
 
(90,291
 
 
(66,197
 
 
(109,841
 
 
(225,075
 
 
(140,584
 
 
(22,060
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Accretion of contingently redeemable convertible preferred shares
  
 
(26,391
 
 
(24,094
 
 
—  
 
 
 
—  
 
 
 
—  
 
 
 
—  
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net loss attributable to common shareholders
  
 
(116,682
 
 
(90,291
 
 
(109,841
 
 
(225,075
 
 
(140,584
 
 
(22,060
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net loss per common share:
                                                
Basic and diluted
  
 
(2.73
 
 
(1.57
 
 
(1.43
 
 
(2.91
 
 
(1.78
 
 
(0.28
Weighted average number of shares used in calculating basic and diluted loss per common share:
                                                
Common shares — Basic and diluted
  
 
42,666,670
 
 
 
—  
 
 
 
—  
 
 
 
—  
 
 
 
—  
 
 
 
—  
 
Class A common share — Basic and diluted
  
 
—  
 
 
 
40,441,999
 
 
 
59,721,341
 
 
 
60,415,978
 
 
 
61,809,501
 
 
 
61,809,501
 
Class B common share — Basic and diluted
  
 
—  
 
 
 
17,000,189
 
 
 
17,000,189
 
 
 
17,000,189
 
 
 
17,000,189
 
 
 
17,000,189
 
 
Notes:
 
(1)
Share-based compensation expenses are allocated in cost of revenues and operating expenses as follows:
 
                                                                                                                                                                         
    
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
    
2017
    
2018
    
2019
    
2020
    
2021
 
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
US$
 
Cost of revenue
  
 
—  
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
73
 
  
 
4
 
  
 
41
 
  
 
6
 
Research and development expenses
  
 
1,408
 
  
 
9,448
 
  
 
12,819
 
  
 
7,176
 
  
 
13,801
 
  
 
2,166
 
Sales and marketing expenses
  
 
944
 
  
 
3,347
 
  
 
6,040
 
  
 
3,965
 
  
 
2,609
 
  
 
409
 
General and administrative expenses
  
 
5,923
 
  
 
11,766
 
  
 
28,352
 
  
 
17,713
 
  
 
13,761
 
  
 
2,160
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
  
 
8,275
 
  
 
24,561
 
  
 
47,284
 
  
 
28,858
 
  
 
30,212
 
  
 
4,741
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                         
    
As of December 31,
 
    
2017
   
2018
    
2019
    
2020
    
2021
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
US$
 
                                          
    
(in thousands)
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
                                                    
Cash and cash equivalents
  
 
208,161
 
 
 
576,562
 
  
 
431,459
 
  
 
356,115
 
  
 
90,552
 
  
 
14,210
 
Accounts receivable, net
  
 
49,594
 
 
 
141,911
 
  
 
135,417
 
  
 
44,886
 
  
 
43,860
 
  
 
6,883
 
Prepayments and other current assets
  
 
34,228
 
 
 
80,578
 
  
 
86,087
 
  
 
49,013
 
  
 
46,670
 
  
 
7,323
 
Total assets
  
 
359,450
 
 
 
992,068
 
  
 
939,923
 
  
 
787,427
 
  
 
595,537
 
  
 
93,453
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Accounts payable
  
 
8,340
 
 
 
18,811
 
  
 
19,996
 
  
 
16,592
 
  
 
18,292
 
  
 
2,870
 
Deferred revenue and customer deposits
  
 
49,557
 
 
 
59,483
 
  
 
77,561
 
  
 
109,182
 
  
 
119,991
 
  
 
18,829
 
Accrued liabilities and other current liabilities
  
 
52,639
 
 
 
76,666
 
  
 
96,277
 
  
 
109,136
 
  
 
85,305
 
  
 
13,388
 
Total liabilities
  
 
117,197
 
 
 
390,408
 
  
 
432,135
 
  
 
466,188
 
  
 
380,094
 
  
 
59,645
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total mezzanine equity
  
 
466,637
 
 
 
—  
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
—  
 
Total shareholders’ deficit
  
 
(224,384
 
 
601,660
 
  
 
507,788
 
  
 
321,239
 
  
 
215,443
 
  
 
33,808
 
Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and equity
  
 
359,450
 
 
 
992,068
 
  
 
939,923
 
  
 
787,427
 
  
 
595,537
 
  
 
93,453
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
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For the Year Ended December 31,
 
    
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
   
2021
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
US$
 
                                      
    
(in thousands)
 
Consolidated Cash Flow Data:
                                                
Net cash (used in)/provided by operating activities
     (75,532     (97,925     (25,758     75,810       (76,650     (12,027
Net cash (used in)/provided investing activities
     (28,644     (139,206     (88,966     (144,415     26,442       4,150  
Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities
     217,446       614,884       (33,883     315       (54,520     (8,556
Effect of foreign currency exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash
     (8,282     (9,352     3,504       (7,054     3,080       483  
Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash
     104,988       368,401       (145,103     (75,344     (101,648     (15,950
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at the beginning of year
     103,288       208,276       576,677       431,574       356,230       55,900  
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at the end of year
     208,276       576,677       431,574       356,230       254,582       39,950  
B.
Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D.
Risk Factors
Summary of Risk Factors
Investing in our ADSs involves significant risks. You should carefully consider all of the information in this annual report before making an investment in our ADSs. Below is a summary of material risks we and our VIE face, organized under relevant headings. These risks are discussed more fully in Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We and our VIE are subject to risks and uncertainties related to our business and industry, including, but not limited to, the following:
 
   
We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods, and our recent growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth;
 
   
We have incurred net losses in the past, which we may continue to experience in the future;
 
   
If we cannot successfully execute our strategy and continue to develop and effectively market SAAS Businesses and our other business initiatives that anticipate and respond to the needs of app developers and our customers, our business, operating results and financial condition may suffer;
 
   
If we are not able to continue to gain access to mobile data in the future, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected;
 
   
If the market for our SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives develops more slowly than we expect, our growth may slow or stall and our operating results could be harmed;
 
   
Our and our VIE’s business generates and processes a large amount of data, and we are required to comply with PRC and other applicable laws relating to privacy and cybersecurity. The improper use or disclosure of data could have a material and adverse effect on our business and prospects;
 
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Our business depends on strong brand and failing to maintain and enhance our brand would hurt our ability to expand our base of app developers and customers;
 
   
If we fail to keep up with rapid changes in technologies, our future success may be adversely affected; and
 
   
We may not be able to compete successfully with our current or future competitors.
Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure
We and our VIE are also subject to risks and uncertainties related to our corporate structure, including, but not limited to, the following:
 
   
Aurora is a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in our VIE, and we conduct our operations in China primarily through (i) our PRC subsidiary and (ii) our VIE with which we have maintained contractual arrangements. Investors in our ADSs thus are not purchasing equity interest in our operating entities in China but instead are purchasing equity interest in Cayman Islands holding company. If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating some of our business operations in China do not comply with PRC regulations relating to the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we and our VIE could be subject to severe penalties, or be forced to relinquish our interest in those operations. Our holding company in the Cayman Islands, our PRC subsidiary, our VIE, and investors of Aurora face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements without VIE and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of our VIE and our company as a whole;
 
   
We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders for substantially all of our business operation, which may not be as effective as direct ownership. we rely on the performance by our VIE and its shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over our VIE. However, the shareholders of our consolidated VIE may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate certain portions of our business through the contractual arrangements with our VIE;
 
   
Any failure by our VIE or its shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business. if our VIE or its shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and claiming damages, which we cannot assure will be effective under PRC law; and
 
   
The shareholders of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with Aurora, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition. These shareholders may breach, or cause our VIE to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and our VIE, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control our VIE and receive economic benefits from them. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholders of our VIE, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.
Risks Related to Doing Business in China
We and our VIE face risks and uncertainties related to doing business in China in general, including, but not limited to, the following:
 
   
Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations. The enforcement of laws and rules and regulations in China may change quickly with little advance notice, which could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs;
 
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We and our VIE may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet-related businesses and companies, and any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations;
 
   
The approval and/or other requirements of the CSRC or other PRC governmental authorities may be required in connection with an offering under PRC rules, regulations or policies, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or how soon we will be able to obtain such approval. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining the requisite governmental approval for an offering, or a rescission of such approval, would subject us to sanctions imposed by the relevant PRC regulatory authority;
 
   
The PRC government’s significant oversight over our business operation could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs. The Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time, or may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. Any actions by the Chinese government to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless;
 
   
The PCAOB is currently unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections over our auditor deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections; and
 
   
Our ADSs will be prohibited from trading in the United States under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, in 2024 if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China, or in 2023 if proposed changes to the law are enacted. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.
Risks Related to our ADSs
We face risks and uncertainties related to our ADSs, including, but not limited to, the following:
 
   
The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors;
 
   
We cannot guarantee that any share repurchase program will be fully consummated or that any share repurchase program will enhance long-term shareholder value, and share repurchases could increase the volatility of the trading price of the ADSs and could diminish our cash reserves;
 
   
We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements;
 
   
Our dual-class voting structure will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A common shares and the ADSs may view as beneficial; and
 
   
The sale or availability for sale, or perceived sale or availability for sale, of substantial amounts of the ADSs could adversely affect their market price.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods, and our recent growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth.
We started operation in 2012. As a result of our relatively limited operating history, our ability to forecast our future results of operations is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. Our revenue has increased substantially since our inception, but we may not be able to sustain revenue growth consistent with our recent history, or at all. Our revenue growth in recent periods may not be indicative of our future performance. In future periods, our revenue could decline or grow more slowly than we expect. We believe growth of our revenue depends on a number of factors, including our ability to:
 
   
attract new app developers and customers, including from diversified industry verticals, and retain and expand our relationships with existing app developers and customers on a cost-effective basis;
 
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maintain the breadth of our ad publisher network and attract new publishers;
 
   
innovate and adapt our services and solutions to meet evolving needs of current and potential customers, including to address market trends;
 
   
maintain and increase our access to data necessary for the development and performance of our solutions;
 
   
maintain the proper functioning of SAAS Businesses which include Developer Services and Vertical Applications, and other business initiatives as we continue to collect increasing amounts of data from a growing user base;
 
   
continuously improve on the algorithms underlying the products and the technologies;
 
   
adapt to a changing regulatory landscape governing privacy matters;
 
   
keep pace with the new technological development in the industry;
 
   
invest sufficiently in our technology and infrastructure, at the pace required to support our growth;
 
   
productize new solutions;
 
   
introduce our services and solutions to new geographic markets;
 
   
increase awareness of our brand among more businesses; and
 
   
attract and retain employees.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully accomplish any of these objectives.
We have incurred net losses in the past, which we may continue to experience in the future.
We have incurred net losses since our inception, including loss from operations of RMB147.2 million, RMB189.8 million and RMB138.1 million (US$21.7 million) for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, and net losses of RMB109.8 million, RMB225.1 million, and RMB140.6 million (US$22.1 million) for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively.
These losses reflect the substantial investments we made to grow our business, including commercialization of our platform, development of our AI and machine learning capabilities, improvement of our technology infrastructure, and our sales and marketing efforts. We cannot assure you that we will be able to generate net profits in the future.
We expect to continue to make significant future expenditures related to the continuous development and expansion of our business, including:
 
   
investments in our research and development team and in the development of new solutions and enhancement of our solutions;
 
   
investments in sales and marketing, including expanding our sales force, increasing our customer base and increasing market awareness of our platform;
 
   
expanding our operations and infrastructure, including internationally; and
 
   
incurring costs associated with general administration, including legal, accounting and other expenses related to being a public company.
As a result of these increased expenses, we will have to generate and sustain increased revenue to be profitable in future periods. Further, in future periods, our revenue growth rate could decline, and we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to offset higher costs and achieve or sustain profitability. If we fail to achieve, sustain or increase profitability, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
 
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If we cannot successfully execute our strategy and continue to develop and effectively market SAAS Businesses and our other business initiatives that anticipate and respond to the needs of app developers and our customers, our business, operating results and financial condition may suffer.
The market for SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives is characterized by constant change and innovation, and we expect it to continue to rapidly evolve. Moreover, many of our customers operate in industries characterized by changing technologies and business models, which require them to develop and manage increasingly complex mobile application and IT infrastructure environments. Our historical success has been based on our ability to offer high quality
in-app
functionalities needed by app developers and innovative SAAS and other products with industry-specific and actionable insights for our customers, and the resulting benefits to customers’ businesses and brands. Our success has also depended upon our ability to identify, target and reach customers that need our services and SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing and successfully convert app developers into paying customers through our sales and marketing activities and then increase the cross-sale among each line of our businesses. If we do not respond to the rapidly changing needs of our customers by developing and enhancing our SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives, developing new products on a timely basis that can address evolving customer needs, and selling and marketing them effectively, our competitive position and business prospects will be harmed.
Additionally, the process of developing new technology, SAAS Businesses may be complex and uncertain, and if we fail to accurately predict developers’ and customers’ changing needs and emerging technological trends, our business could be harmed. We believe that we must continue to dedicate significant resources to our research and development efforts. Our enhancement of existing services, SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing development of new products could fail to attain sufficient market acceptance for many reasons, including:
 
   
the failure to accurately predict market or customer demands;
 
   
defects, errors or failures in the design or performance of our new products or product enhancements;
 
   
negative publicity about the performance or effectiveness of our SAAS Businesses;
 
   
delays in developing and enhancing existing products or releasing our new products to the market;
 
   
the introduction or anticipated introduction of competing products by our competitors;
 
   
poor business conditions for our customers, causing them to delay purchases; and
 
   
the perceived value of our services and SAAS Businesses relative to their cost.
To the extent we are not able to continue to execute on our business model to timely and effectively develop and market our SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives to address these challenges, our business, operating results and financial condition will be adversely affected.
There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify new opportunities, develop and bring new SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives to market on a timely basis or achieve market acceptance of our services and products, or that products and technologies developed by others will not render our comprehensive suite of services obsolete or
non-competitive.
Further, we may make changes to our services and products that our customers do not like or find useful. We may also discontinue certain features, begin to charge for certain features that are currently free, such as certain developer services, or increase fees for any of our features or usage of our SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives. If our services or products do not achieve adequate acceptance in the market, our competitive position will be impaired, our revenue may decline or grow more slowly than expected and the negative impact on our operating results may be particularly acute and we may not receive a return on our investment because of the upfront research and development, sales and marketing and other expenses we incur.
If we are not able to continue to gain access to mobile data in the future, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
By providing services to mobile app developers, we gain access to massive mobile data that we use to develop our industry-specific SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing. Data is sourced only based on our services provided to developers and primarily consists of unstructured anonymous meta data. Based on our centralized proprietary data processing platform and leveraging our AI and machine learning capabilities, we are able to gain actionable and effective insights from the data and develop a variety of SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing. Our business plan assumes that the demand for SAAS Businesses will increase.
 
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We may not be able to maintain and grow the number of app developers we serve. Furthermore, certain of our app developers may prohibit or limit our access to or use of this data. The broad adoption of certain
end-user
computer software or programs may pose technical restrictions on our ability to access user data or
end-users
may dispute our use of the data. Interruptions, failures or defects in our data access and processing systems, as well as privacy concerns regarding the user data, could also limit our ability to analyze data. In addition, our ability to collect data may be restricted by new laws and regulations. If we are not able to continue to gain access to extensive mobile data in the future, we will lose our competitive strengths, and we may not be able to effectively and efficiently offer and improve our existing SAAS Businesses or develop new products that respond to the needs of our customers. Accordingly, demand for our solutions may not continue to develop as we anticipate, or at all, and because we derive a substantial portion of our revenue from SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing, the growth of our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
If the market for our SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives develops more slowly than we expect, our growth may slow or stall and our operating results could be harmed.
The market for SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives is rapidly growing. Our future success will depend in large part on our ability to penetrate the existing market, as well as the continued growth and expansion of that market. It is difficult to predict customer adoption and renewals of our subscriptions, customer demand for our platform, the size, growth rate and expansion of this market, the entry of competitive products or the success of existing competitive products. Our ability to penetrate the existing market for SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives any expansion of that market depends on a number of factors, including the cost, performance and perceived value associated with our service and products, as well as potential customers’ willingness to adopt our service and products. If we or other SAAS Businesses or other providers experience security incidents, loss of customer or user data, disruptions in delivery or other problems, the market as a whole, including our business, may be negatively affected. If our service and products, especially SAAS Businesses, do not achieve widespread adoption, or there is a reduction in demand caused by a lack of customer acceptance, technological challenges, weakening economic conditions, security or privacy concerns, competing technologies and products, decreases in corporate spending or otherwise, it could result in decreased revenue and our business could be adversely affected.
Our and our VIE’s business generates and processes a large amount of data, and we are required to comply with PRC and other applicable laws relating to privacy and cybersecurity. The improper use or disclosure of data could have a material and adverse effect on our business and prospects.
Our and our VIE’s business generates and processes a large quantity of data. We face risks inherent in handling and protecting large volume of data. In particular, we face a number of challenges relating to data from transactions, developer services, and other activities on our platforms, including:
 
   
protecting the data in and hosted on our system, including against attacks on our system by outside parties or fraudulent behavior or improper use by our employees;
 
   
addressing concerns related to privacy and sharing, safety and other factors; and
 
   
complying with applicable laws, rules and regulations relating to the collection, use, storage, transfer and disclosure of personal information, including any requests from regulatory and government authorities relating to these data.
In general, we expect that data privacy and data protection compliance will receive greater attention and focus from regulators, both domestically and globally, as well as attract continued or greater public scrutiny and attention going forward, which could increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges associated with data security and protection. If we are unable to manage these risks, we could become subject to penalties, including fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, and our reputation and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
 
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The PRC regulatory and enforcement regime with regard to data privacy and data protection is evolving and may be subject to different interpretations or significant changes. Moreover, different PRC regulatory bodies, including the Standing Committee of the NPC, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT, the CAC, the MPS and the SAMR, have enforced data privacy and protections laws and regulations with varying standards and applications. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Information Security” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations —Regulations on Privacy Protection.” The following are examples of certain recent PRC regulatory activities in this area:
 
   
The Anti-monopoly Guidelines for the Platform Economy Sector published by the Anti-monopoly Committee of the State Council, effective on February 7, 2021, prohibits collection of user information through coercive means by online platforms operators.
 
   
In August 2021, the Standing Committee of the NPC promulgated the Personal Information Protection Law, which integrates the scattered rules with respect to personal information rights and privacy protection and took effect on November 1, 2021. We update our privacy policies from time to time to meet the latest regulatory requirements of PRC government authorities and adopt technical measures to protect data and ensure cybersecurity in a systematic way. Nonetheless, the Personal Information Protection Law elevates the protection requirements for personal information processing, and many specific requirements of this law remain to be clarified by the CAC, other regulatory authorities, and courts in practice. We may be required to make further adjustments to our business practices to comply with the personal information protection laws and regulations.
Many of the data-related legislations are relatively new and certain concepts thereunder remain subject to interpretation by the regulators. Although we only gain access to anonymous device-level mobile behavioral data that is necessary for, and relevant to, the services provided, the data we obtain and use may include information that is deemed as “personal information” under the PRC Cyber Security Law and related data privacy and protection laws and regulations. As such, we have adopted a series of measures in order to comply with the laws and regulations relating to the protection of personal information. We enter into a service agreement with each app developer that uses our developer services in their mobile apps, and we display privacy policies on our official website. Our service agreement and the privacy policies require each app developer to obtain consent from the end users of its apps in connection with data collection and use pursuant to the PRC Cyber Security Law and related laws and regulations. We periodically check the app developers’ own agreements with their end users on a sampling basis, and we remind the app developers to rectify the situation where we find instances
of non-compliance with
our service agreements, such as their failure to obtain sufficient consents from their end users. Moreover, once the original mobile behavioral data is collected through developer services, our data processing platform immediately stores, cleanses, structures and encrypts the data, and we then utilize AI and machine learning technologies to conduct modeling exercises and data mining and develop SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing that offer industry-specific, actionable insights for customers, in aggregated and anonymized form. In addition, we have adopted rigorous data security measures to prevent our data from unauthorized access or use or being retrieved to establish any connection with the device owners’ identities.
While we take all these measures to comply with all applicable data privacy and protection laws and regulations, we cannot guarantee the effectiveness of the measures undertaken by us, app developers and business partners. If any data that we possess belongs to data categories that are subject to heightened scrutiny, we may be required to adopt stricter measures for protection and management of such data. The Cybersecurity Review Measures and the Draft Regulations remain unclear on whether the relevant requirements will be applicable to companies that are already listed in the United States, such as us. We cannot predict the impact of the Cybersecurity Review Measures and the Draft Regulations, if any, at this stage, and we will closely monitor and assess any development in the rule-making process. If the Cybersecurity Review Measures and the enacted version of the Draft Regulations mandate clearance of cybersecurity review and other specific actions to be taken by issuers like us, we face uncertainties as to whether these additional procedures can be completed by us timely, or at all, which may subject us to government enforcement actions and investigations, fines, penalties, suspension of our
non-compliant
operations, or removal of our app from the relevant application stores, and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been involved in any formal investigations on cybersecurity review made by the CAC on such basis.
 
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In general, compliance with the existing PRC laws and regulations, as well as additional laws and regulations that PRC regulatory bodies may enact in the future, related to data security and personal information protection, may be costly and result in additional expenses to us, and subject us to negative publicity, which could harm our reputation and business operations. There are also uncertainties with respect to how such laws and regulations will be implemented and interpreted in practice.
In addition, regulatory authorities around the world have adopted or are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. These legislative and regulatory proposals, if adopted, and the uncertain interpretations and application thereof could, in addition to the possibility of fines, result in an order requiring that we change our data practices and policies, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. The European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which came into effect on May 25, 2018, includes operational requirements for companies that receive or process personal data of residents of the European Economic Area. The GDPR establishes new requirements applicable to the processing of personal data, affords new data protection rights to individuals and imposes penalties for serious data breaches. Individuals also have a right to compensation under the GDPR for financial or
non-financial
losses. Although we do not conduct any business in the European Economic Area, in the event that residents of the European Economic Area access our website or our mobile platform and input protected information, we may become subject to provisions of the GDPR.
Security and privacy breaches may hurt our business.
We currently retain data from other parties, including data from mobile devices in secure database servers. It is essential for us to maintain the security of data that we store and process properly. We maintain a data security program. Once the original anonymous device-level mobile behavioral data is collected and aggregated, our platform stores, cleanses, structures and encrypts data. We also design and adopt other security controls to protect our data from breaches, including separation of data from external servers by firewalls, granting of limited access to designated employees, and maintaining a proper visit log. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our
AI-Powered
Data Processing Platform—Data Security.”
Given the nature of our business as an internet services provider to developers, we face the challenge of protecting the data in and hosted on our system, including against attacks on our system by outside parties or fraudulent behavior or improper use by our employees. Any security breach and data decryption, including those resulting from a cybersecurity attack, or any unauthorized access, unauthorized usage, virus or similar breach or disruption could result in the loss of the information that we gain access to and store, damage to our reputation, early termination of our contracts, litigation, regulatory investigations or other liabilities.
Techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target. As a result, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. If an actual or perceived security breach occurs, the market perception of our data security measures could be harmed and we could lose sales and customers.
In addition, the PRC regulatory and enforcement regime with regard to data security and data protection is evolving and may be subject to different interpretations or significant changes. For instance:
 
   
In June 2021, the Standing Committee of the NPC promulgated the Data Security Law, which took effect in September 2021. The Data Security Law, among other things, provides for security review procedure for data-related activities that may affect national security. In July 2021, the state council promulgated the Regulations on Protection of Critical Information Infrastructure, which became effective on September 1, 2021. Pursuant to this regulation, critical information infrastructure means key network facilities or information systems of critical industries or sectors, such as public communication and information service, energy, transportation, water conservation, finance, public services,
e-government
affairs and national defense science, the damage, malfunction or data leakage of which may endanger national security, people’s livelihoods and the public interest. In December 2021, the CAC, together with other authorities, jointly promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which became effective on February 15, 2022 and replaces its predecessor regulation. Pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, critical information infrastructure operators that procure internet products and services must be subject to the cybersecurity review if their activities affect or may affect national security. The Cybersecurity Review Measures further stipulates that critical information infrastructure operators or network platform operators that hold personal information of over one million users shall apply with the Cybersecurity Review Office for a cybersecurity review before any public offering at a foreign stock exchange. As of the date of this annual report, no detailed rules or implementation rules have been issued by any authority and we have not been informed that we are a critical information infrastructure operator by any government authorities. Furthermore, the exact scope of “critical information infrastructure operators” under the current regulatory regime remains unclear, and the PRC government authorities may have wide discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of the applicable laws. Therefore, it is uncertain whether we would be deemed to be a critical information infrastructure operator under PRC law. If we are deemed to be a critical information infrastructure operator under the PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations, we may be subject to obligations in addition to what we have fulfilled under the PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations.
 
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In November 2021, the CAC released the Regulations on the Network Data Security (Draft for Comments), or the Draft Regulations. The Draft Regulations provide that data processors refer to individuals or organizations that, during their data processing activities such as data collection, storage, utilization, transmission, publication and deletion, have autonomy over the purpose and the manner of data processing. In accordance with the Draft Regulations, data processors shall apply for a cybersecurity review for certain activities, including, among other things, (i) the listing abroad of data processors that process the personal information of more than one million users and (ii) any data processing activity that affects or may affect national security. However, there have been no clarifications from the relevant authorities as of the date of this annual report as to the standards for determining whether an activity is one that “affects or may affect national security.” In addition, the Draft Regulations requires that data processors that process “important data” or are listed overseas must conduct an annual data security assessment by itself or commission a data security service provider to do so, and submit the assessment report of the preceding year to the municipal cybersecurity department by the end of January each year. As of the date of this annual report, the Draft Regulations was released for public comment only, and their respective provisions and anticipated adoption or effective date may be subject to change with substantial uncertainty.
The uncertainties with respect to how such laws and regulations will be implemented and interpreted in practice, and the potential further enactment of laws and regulations by the PRC regulatory bodies may result in additional expenses to us, and subject us to negative publicity, which could harm our reputation and business operations.
Moreover, if a high-profile security breach occurs with respect to another SAAS Businesses, our customers and potential customers may lose trust in the security of our SAAS Businesses generally, which could adversely impact our ability to retain existing customers or attract new ones.
Our business depends on strong brand and failing to maintain and enhance our brand would hurt our ability to expand our base of app developers and customers.
We believe that maintaining and enhancing our “Jiguang” brand identity and increasing market awareness of our company and products, particularly among app developers and publishers, is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our platform, to strengthening our relationships with our existing customers and to our ability to attract new customers. The successful promotion of our brand will depend largely on our continued marketing efforts, our ability to continue to offer high quality products, our ability to maintain our leadership position and our ability to successfully differentiate our products and platform from competing products and services. Our brand promotion activities may not be successful or yield increased revenue. In addition, independent industry analysts may provide reviews of our products and competing products and services, which may significantly influence the perception of our products in the market. If the reviews are negative or not as strong as reviews of our competitors’ products and services, then our brand may be harmed.
In addition, if we do not handle product complaints effectively, then our brand and reputation may suffer, app developers and customers may lose confidence in us and they may reduce or cease their use of our products. App developers and our customers may post and discuss on social media about internet-based products and services, including our products and platform. Our reputation depends, in part, on our ability to generate positive feedback and minimize negative feedback on social media channels where existing and potential customers seek and share information. If actions we take or changes we make to our products or platform upset these app developers and our customers, then their online commentary could negatively affect our brand and reputation. Complaints or negative publicity about us, our products or our platform could materially and adversely impact our ability to attract and retain users and customers, our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
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The promotion of our brand also requires us to make expenditures, and we anticipate that these expenditures will increase as our market becomes more competitive and as we expand into new markets. To the extent that these activities increase revenue, this revenue still may not be enough to offset the increased expenses we incur. If we do not successfully maintain and enhance our brand, then our business may not grow, we may see our pricing power reduced relative to competitors and we may lose users and customers, all of which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we fail to keep up with rapid changes in technologies, our future success may be adversely affected.
We utilize AI and machine learning technology and other advanced data technology tools to process data and productize our SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing. The success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to adapt and respond effectively to the technology development on a timely basis. If we are unable to develop new products that satisfy our customers and provide enhancements and new features for our existing products that keep pace with rapid technological and industry change, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. If new technologies emerge that are able to deliver competitive products and services at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely, such technologies could adversely impact our ability to compete effectively.
Our platform integrates with a variety of network, hardware, mobile and software platforms and technologies, and we need to continuously modify and enhance our products and platform to adapt to changes and innovation in these technologies. If app developers or customers adopt new software platforms or infrastructure, we may be required to develop new versions of our products to work with those new platforms or infrastructure. This development effort may require significant resources, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Any failure of our products and platform to operate effectively with evolving or new platforms and technologies could reduce the demand for our products. We must continue to invest substantial resources in research and development to enhance our technology. If we are unable to respond to these changes in a cost-effective manner, our products may become less marketable and less competitive or obsolete, and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We may not be able to compete successfully with our current or future competitors.
The market for SAAS Businesses and other business initiatives is intensely competitive and characterized by rapid changes in technology, developer and customer requirements, industry standards and frequent new product introductions and improvements. We face competition in all lines of business. In the future, as we further grow, we anticipate continued challenges from current competitors, as well as by new entrants into the industry including major online media networks, which may enjoy greater resources than us. See “Item 4. Information On the Company—B. Business Overview—Competition.” If we are unable to anticipate or effectively react to these competitive challenges, our competitive position could be weakened, and we could experience a decline in our growth rate or revenue that could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Some of our existing competitors, especially the competitors for our SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing have, and our potential competitors could have, substantial competitive advantages such as:
 
   
greater name recognition, longer operating histories and larger user bases;
 
   
broader, deeper or otherwise more established relationships with technology, channel and business partners, including ad publishers and customers;
 
   
greater resources to make acquisitions;
 
   
larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios;
 
   
larger sales and marketing budgets and resources and the capacity to leverage their sales efforts and marketing expenditures across a broader portfolio of products; and
 
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substantially greater financial, technical and other resources to provide support, to make acquisitions and to develop and introduce new products.
We may not compete successfully against our current or potential competitors. If we are unable to compete successfully, or if competing successfully requires us to take costly actions in response to the actions of our competitors, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, companies competing with us may have an entirely different pricing or distribution model. Increased competition could result in fewer customer subscriptions and transactions, price reductions, reduced operating margins and loss of market share. Further, we may be required to make substantial additional investments in research, development, marketing and sales in order to respond to such competitive threats, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully in the future.
If any system failure, interruption or downtime occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Although we seek to reduce the possibility of disruptions and other outages, our platform may be disrupted by problems with our own cloud-based technology and system, such as malfunctions in our software or other facilities or network overload. Our systems may be vulnerable to damage or interruption caused by telecommunication failures, power loss, human error, computer attacks or viruses, earthquakes, floods, fires, terrorist attacks and similar events. While we locate our servers in multiple data centers across China, our system may not be fully redundant or backed up, and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Despite any precautions we may take, the occurrence of natural disasters or other unanticipated problems at our hosting facilities could result in interruptions in the availability of our products and services. Any interruption in the ability of app developers or customers to use our services and solutions could damage our reputation, reduce our future revenues, harm our future profits, subject us to regulatory scrutiny and lead users to seek alternative products.
Our servers may experience downtime from time to time, which may adversely affect our operations, brands and user perception of the reliability of our systems. Any scheduled or unscheduled interruption in the ability of users to use our servers could result in an immediate, and possibly substantial, loss of revenues.
We currently host our cloud service from third-party data center facilities operated by several different providers located in China. Any damage to, or failure of, our cloud service that is hosted by these third parties, whether as a result of our actions, actions by the third-party data centers, actions by other third parties, or acts of God, could result in interruptions in our cloud service and/or the loss of data. While the third-party hosting centers host the server infrastructure, we manage the cloud services through our technological operations team and need to support version control, changes in cloud software parameters and the evolution of our solutions. As we continue to add data centers and capacity in our existing data centers, we may move or transfer our data and our customers’ data. Despite precautions taken during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair the delivery of our service. Impairment of, or interruptions in, our cloud services may reduce our revenues, subject us to claims and litigation, cause our customers to terminate their subscriptions and adversely affect our subscription renewal rates and our ability to attract new customers. Our business will also be harmed if app developers, customers and potential customers believe our services are unreliable.
We do not control, or in some cases have limited control over, the operation of the data center facilities we use, and they are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures and similar events. They may also be subject to
break-ins,
sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism and similar misconduct, and to adverse events caused by operator error. We cannot rapidly switch to new data centers or move customers from one data center to another in the event of any adverse event. Despite precautions taken at these facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster, an act of terrorism or other act of malfeasance, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our service and the loss of accumulated data and our business.
 
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Interruption or failure of China’s internet infrastructure or information technology and communications systems of app developers and customers could impair our ability to effectively deliver our products.
Our business depends on the performance and reliability of the internet infrastructure in China and the stability of information technology and communications systems of app developers, customers and publishers. The availability of our SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing, in part, depends on telecommunications carriers and other third-party providers for communications and storage capacity, including bandwidth and server storage, among other things. Almost all access to the internet in China is maintained through state-owned telecommunication carriers under administrative control, and we obtain access to developers’ networks operated by such telecommunications carriers and internet service providers to deliver our developer services. We have experienced internet interruptions in the past, which were typically caused by service interruption of the value-added telecommunications service providers. In addition, since we rely on the performance of our publishers to deliver the ads, any interruption or failure of their information technology and communications systems may undermine the effectiveness of our advertising services and solutions and cause us to lose customers, which may harm our operating results.
We may not be able to prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.
We regard our trademarks, service marks, patents, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies,
know-how
and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark and patent law, trade secret protection and confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and third parties to protect our proprietary rights. As of December 31, 2021, within China, we had 59 patent applications pending and 20 patents registered. We own 92 computer software copyrights, relating to various aspects of our SAAS Businesses and targeted marketing. In addition, we have filed 37 trademark applications and have maintained 55 trademark registrations and 4 artwork copyrights in China. We also registered 22 domain names, including
www.jiguang.cn
. There can be no assurance that any of our pending patent, trademark, software copyrights or other intellectual property applications will issue or be registered. Any intellectual property rights we have obtained or may obtain in the future may not be sufficient to provide us with a competitive advantage, and could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed or misappropriated. Given the potential cost, effort, risks and disadvantages of obtaining patent protection, we have not and do not plan to apply for patents or other forms of intellectual property protection for certain of our key technologies. If some of these technologies are later proven to be important to our business and are used by third parties without our authorization, especially for commercial purposes, our business and competitive position may be harmed.
Monitoring for infringement or other unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights is difficult and costly, and we cannot be certain that we can effectively prevent such infringement or unauthorized use of our intellectual property. From time to time, we may need to resort to litigation or other proceedings to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial cost and diversion of resources. Our efforts to enforce or protect our intellectual property rights may be ineffective and could result in the invalidation or narrowing of the scope of our intellectual property or expose us to counterclaims from third parties, any of which may adversely affect our business and operating results.
In addition, it is often difficult to create and enforce intellectual property rights in China and other countries outside of the United States. Even where adequate, relevant laws exist in China and other countries outside of the United States, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of such laws, or to enforce court judgments or arbitration awards delivered in another jurisdiction. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights in such countries. Additional uncertainty may result from changes to intellectual property laws enacted in the jurisdictions in which we operate, and from interpretations of intellectual property laws by applicable courts and government bodies.
Our confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and third parties, such as consultants and contractors, may not effectively prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of our confidential information, intellectual property or technology and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of such unauthorized use or disclosure. Trade secrets and
know-how
are difficult to protect, and our trade secrets may be disclosed, become known or be independently discovered by others. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our service and solution features, software and functionality or obtain and use information that we consider confidential and proprietary. If we are not able to adequately protect our trade secrets,
know-how
and other confidential information, intellectual property or technology, our business and operating results may be adversely affected.
 
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We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims or other allegations, which could result in our payment of substantial damages, penalties and fines, removal of data or technology from our system.
Third parties may own technology patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and internet content, which they may use to assert claims against us. Our internal procedures and licensing practices may not be effective in completely preventing the unauthorized use of copyrighted materials or the infringement of other rights of third parties by us or our users. The validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property rights in internet-related industries, particularly in China, is uncertain and still evolving. For example, as we face increasing competition and as litigation becomes a more common way to resolve disputes in China, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims.
Although we have not been subject to claims or lawsuits outside China, we cannot assure you that we will not become subject to intellectual property laws in other jurisdictions, such as the United States. If a claim of infringement brought against us in the United States or another jurisdiction is successful, we may be required to pay substantial penalties or other damages and fines, enter into license agreements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all or be subject to injunction or court orders. Even if allegations or claims lack merit, defending against them could be both costly and time consuming and could significantly divert the efforts and resources of our management and other personnel.
Competitors and other third parties may claim that our officers or employees have infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated their software, confidential information, trade secrets or other proprietary technology in the course of their employment with us. Although we take steps to prevent the unauthorized use or disclosure of such third-party information, intellectual property or technology by our officers and employees, we cannot guarantee that any policies or contractual provisions that we have implemented or may implement will be effective. If a claim of infringement, misappropriation or violation is brought against us or one of our officers or employees, we may suffer reputational harm and may be required to pay substantial damages, subject to injunction or court orders or required to remove the data and redesign our products or technology, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, we license and use technologies from third parties in our applications and platform. These third-party technology licenses may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms or at all, and may expose us to liability. Any such liability, or our inability to use any of these third-party technologies, could result in disruptions to our business that could materially and adversely affect our operating and financial results.
Our use of open-source technology could impose limitations on our ability to develop our products and platform.
We use open-source software in our applications and platform and expect to continue to use open-source software in the future. Although we monitor our use of open-source software to avoid subjecting our applications and platform to conditions we do not intend, we may face allegations from others alleging ownership of, or seeking to enforce the terms of, an open-source license, including by demanding release of the open-source software, derivative works, or our proprietary source code that was developed using such software. These allegations could also result in litigation. The terms of many open-source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts or foreign courts. As a result, there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to develop our applications and technology and further commercialize our products and platform. In such an event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue applying our applications, to make our proprietary code generally available in source code form, to
re-engineer
our applications or to discontinue the offering of our service if
re-engineering
could not be accomplished on a timely basis, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition to risks related to license requirements, our use of certain open-source software may lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open-source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Additionally, because any software source code we contribute to open-source projects is publicly available, our ability to protect our intellectual property rights with respect to such software source code may be limited or lost entirely, and we are unable to prevent our competitors or others from using such contributed software source code. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage and, if not addressed, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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Our technologies may include design or performance defects and may not achieve their intended results, any of which may impair our future revenue.
Our technologies for data processing and solutions are relatively new, and they may contain design or performance defects that are not detectable even after extensive internal testing and may become apparent only after widespread and long term of commercial use. Any defect in those technologies as well as their subsequent alterations and improvements could hinder the effectiveness of our platform, which would have a material and adverse effect on our competitiveness, reputation and future prospects. It is not clear whether China’s existing product liability laws apply to software systems like ours. We cannot assure you that if our technologies are found to have design or performance defects, we will not be liable for product liability claims in China. Although we have not experienced any product liability claims to date, we cannot assure you that we will not do so in the future.
App developer growth and engagement depend upon effective interoperation with the apps, mobile operating systems, networks, mobile devices and standards that we do not control.
We make our developer services available across a variety of mobile apps, mobile operating systems and devices. We are dependent on the interoperability of our services with popular mobile apps and devices and mobile operating systems that we do not control, such as Android and iOS. Any changes in such app functions, mobile operating systems or devices that degrade the functionality of our developer services or give preferential treatment to competitive services could adversely affect usage of our services. Mobile operating systems or device manufacturers may develop competing solutions which may interface more effectively with their operating systems and devices. In order to deliver high quality services, it is important that our services work well across a range of apps, mobile operating systems, networks, mobile devices and standards that we do not control.
We may not be successful in developing relationships with key participants in the mobile industry or in developing services that operate effectively with these apps, operating systems, networks, devices and standards. In the event that it is difficult for our app developers to access and use our services, our app developer growth and engagement could be harmed, our data resources may be limited and our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
If we fail to obtain and maintain the requisite licenses and approvals required under complex regulatory environment applicable to our business in China, or if we are required to take actions that are time-consuming or costly, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
The internet and mobile industries in China are highly regulated. Our VIE is required to obtain and maintain applicable licenses and approvals from different regulatory authorities in order to provide their current services. Under the current PRC regulatory scheme, a number of regulatory agencies, including but not limited to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT, and Cyberspace Administration of China, jointly regulate all major aspects of the internet industry, including the mobile internet business. Our VIE also provides mobile app data analysis product to both domestic and foreign financial industry clients, and may be considered as engaging in foreign-related investigation business. Under the current PRC regulatory scheme, our VIE may be required to obtain a foreign-related investigation license. Operators must obtain various government approvals and licenses for relevant internet or mobile business. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Telecommunications Services and Foreign Ownership Restrictions” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Foreign-related Investigation.”
We have obtained two value-added telecommunication business licenses covering different scope of operations and a foreign-related investigation license. These licenses are essential to the operation of our business and are generally subject to regular government review or renewal. However, we cannot assure you that we can successfully renew these licenses in a timely manner or that these licenses are sufficient to conduct all of our present or future business.
 
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We may also be required to obtain the personal credit reporting business license. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Credit Reporting.” The PRC government has adopted several regulations governing personal credit reporting businesses. According to the Administrative Regulations on the Credit Reporting Industry, which was promulgated by the State Council and became effective in 2013, “personal credit reporting business” means the activities of collecting, organizing, storing and processing “information related to the credit standing” of individuals as well as providing the information to others, and a “credit reporting agency” refers to a duly established agency whose primary business is credit reporting. These regulations, together with the Administrative Measures for Credit Reporting Agencies, which was promulgated by the People’s Bank of China and became effective in 2013, set forth qualification standards for entities conducting a credit reporting business in China, rules and requirements for credit reporting businesses and operating standards for credit reporting agencies. According to these regulations and measures, no entity may engage in personal credit reporting business without approval by the credit reporting industry regulatory department under the State Council. If any entity directly engages in personal credit reporting business without such approval, the entity is subject to penalties including suspension of business, confiscation of revenues related to personal credit reporting business, fines of RMB50,000 to RMB500,000 and criminal liabilities. On September 27, 2021, the PBOC promulgated the Administrative Measures for Credit Information Services, or the Credit Information Services Measures, which took effect on January 1, 2022. Pursuant to the Credit Information Services Measures, Credit Information Services, shall mean the collection, sorting, retention, and processing of credit information of enterprises and individuals, and the provision of the foregoing information to information users. Credit information, shall mean the basic individual information, lending information and other relevant information used for identification and determination of creditworthiness status of enterprises and individuals, and collected pursuant to the law for the purpose of providing services for financial activities, as well as the analyzed and evaluated information formed based on the foregoing information. Persons engaging in personal credit information services shall obtain the personal credit information organization license issued by the PBOC pursuant to the Credit Information Services Measures. We provide financial risk management solutions to financial institutions as well as emerging technology companies based on device-level mobile behavior data. Due to the lack of further interpretations of the current regulations governing personal credit reporting businesses, the exact definition and scope of “information related to credit standing” and “personal credit reporting business” under the current regulations are unclear. It is therefore uncertain whether we would be deemed to engage in personal credit reporting business because of our financial risk management solutions. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been subject to any fines or other penalties under any PRC laws or regulations related to personal credit reporting business. However, given the evolving regulatory environment of the personal credit reporting industry, we cannot assure you that we will not be required in the future by the relevant governmental authorities to obtain approval or license for personal credit reporting business in order to continue offering our financial risk management solutions. Our business may also subject to other rules and requirements related to credit reporting business, or new rules and requirements (including approval or license regime) promulgated by the relevant authorities in the future. The existing and future rules and regulations may be costly to comply with, and we may not be able to obtain any required license or other regulatory approvals in a timely manner, or at all. If we are subject to penalties for any of the foregoing reasons, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
Considerable uncertainties exist regarding the interpretation and implementation of existing and future laws and regulations governing our business activities. We cannot assure you that we will not be found in violation of any future laws and regulations or any of the laws and regulations currently in effect due to changes in the relevant authorities’ interpretation of these laws and regulations. If we fail to complete, obtain or maintain any of the required licenses or approvals or make the necessary filings, we may be subject to various penalties, such as confiscation of the net revenues that were generated through the unlicensed internet or mobile activities, the imposition of fines and the discontinuation or restriction of our operations. Any such penalties may disrupt our business operations and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Future acquisitions, strategic investments, partnerships or alliances could be difficult to integrate, and could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute shareholder value, involve anti-monopoly concerns and adversely affect our results of operations.
We may seek to acquire, or make investment in additional businesses, products or technologies in both domestic and overseas markets. For example, we acquired a majority equity interest of Wuhan SendCloud Technology Co., Ltd., or SendCloud, in March 2022 for a total cash consideration of RMB34.5 million (US$5.4 million). We also acquired the MLINK as an intangible asset, from Shanghai Liehong Information Technology Limited Company in March 2019 for a total consideration of RMB8.0 million (US$1.2 million). However, we have limited experience in acquiring, investing in and integrating businesses, products and technologies. If we identify an appropriate candidate for acquisition or investment, we may not be successful in negotiating the terms and/or financing of the transaction, and our due diligence may fail to identify all of the problems, liabilities or other shortcomings or challenges of an acquired business, product or technology, including issues related to intellectual property, product quality or architecture, regulatory compliance practices, revenue recognition or other accounting practices or employee or customer issues.
 
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Any acquisition or investment may require us to use significant amounts of cash, issue potentially dilutive equity securities or incur debt. In addition, acquisitions involve numerous risks, any of which could harm our business, including:
 
   
difficulties in integrating the operations, technologies, services and personnel of acquired businesses, especially if those businesses operate outside of our core competency;
 
   
cultural challenges associated with integrating employees from the acquired company into our organization;
 
   
reputation and perception risks associated with the acquired product or technology by the general public;
 
   
ineffectiveness or incompatibility of acquired technologies or services;
 
   
potential loss of key employees of acquired businesses;
 
   
inability to maintain the key business relationships and the reputations of acquired businesses;
 
   
diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
 
   
litigation for activities of the acquired company, including claims from terminated employees, clients, former shareholders or other third parties;
 
   
failure to identify all of the problems, liabilities or other shortcomings or challenges of an acquired company, technology, or solution, including issues related to intellectual property, solution quality or architecture, regulatory compliance practices, revenue recognition or other accounting practices or employee or client issues;
 
   
in the case of foreign acquisitions, the need to integrate operations across different cultures and languages and to address the particular economic, currency, political and regulatory risks associated with specific countries;
 
   
costs necessary to establish and maintain effective internal controls for acquired businesses;
 
   
failure to successfully further develop the acquired technology in order to recoup our investment; and
 
   
increased fixed costs.
If we are unable to successfully integrate any future business, product or technology we acquire, our business and results of operations may suffer.
Any loss of key personnel or inability to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel may impair our ability to expand our business.
Our success is substantially dependent upon the continued service and performance of our senior management team and key technical, marketing and sales personnel, including our senior management. The replacement of any members of our senior management team likely would involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives.
Our future success also depends, in part, on our ability to continue to attract, integrate and retain highly skilled personnel. Competition for highly skilled personnel, including, in particular, engineers, is frequently intense. We must offer competitive compensation and opportunities for career growth in order to attract and retain these highly skilled employees. Any failure to successfully attract, integrate, or retain qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs may negatively impact our growth.
 
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Allegations or lawsuits against us or our management may harm our reputation and business.
We have been, and may in the future be, subject to allegations or lawsuits brought by our competitors, customers, employees or other individuals or entities, including claims of breach of contract or unfair competition. As of the date of this annual report, there were no lawsuit in respect of labor dispute pending against us. Any potential allegation or lawsuits, with or without merit, or any perceived unfair, unethical, fraudulent or inappropriate business practice by us or perceived malfeasance by our management could harm our reputation and user base and distract our management from our daily operations. Allegations or lawsuits against us may also generate negative publicity that significantly harms our reputation, which may materially and adversely affect our user base and our ability to attract app developers and customers. In addition to the related cost, managing and defending litigation and related indemnity obligations can significantly divert management’s attention. We may also need to pay damages or settle the litigation with a substantial amount of cash. All of these could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operation and cash flows.
If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls, our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis could be impaired.
Since our initial public offering of our ADSs on Nasdaq in July 2018, we have become subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act required that we include a report from management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form
20-F
beginning with our annual report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2019. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined in the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue an adverse report if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. Furthermore, we have incurred and anticipate that we will continue to incur considerable costs, management time and other resources in an effort to comply with Section 404 and other requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.
Our management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2021. See “Item 15. Controls and Procedures.” However, there is no assurance that we will not have any material weakness in the future. Failure to discover and address any control deficiencies could result in inaccuracies in our financial statements and impair our ability to comply with applicable financial reporting requirements and related regulatory filings on a timely basis. Moreover, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could significantly hinder our ability to prevent fraud. If we fail to develop or maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, our management and our independent registered public accounting firm may not conclude on an
on-going
basis that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. This conclusion could adversely impact the market price of our ADSs due to a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our reporting processes.
In addition, our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.
If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If that were to happen, the market price of our ADSs could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the Nasdaq, SEC or other regulatory authorities.
 
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Our results of operations may be subject to seasonal fluctuation due to a number of factors, any of which could adversely affect our business and operation results.
The historical seasonality of our business has been relatively mild due to our rapid growth but it may increase further in the future. Due to our limited operating history, the seasonal trends that we have experienced in the past may not apply to, or be indicative of, our future operating results. As we grow, our quarterly revenues and operating results may be subject to seasonal fluctuations, depending upon a number of factors which may be out of our control. We may experience weaker demands for targeted marketing business in the first quarter of each year due to the Chinese New Year holidays. Expenditures by advertisers vary in cycles and tend to reflect overall economic conditions, both in China and globally, as well as budgeting and buying patterns in different industries and companies. Advertisers may alternate between periods with major advertising campaigns and periods of relative inactivity. Because most advertising campaigns are short in duration and we typically sign contracts on a
campaign-by-campaign
basis, it is difficult for us to forecast our results of operations for future quarters. Our quarterly revenues and our costs and expenses as a percentage of our revenues may be significantly different from our historical or projected rates. Our operating results in future quarters may fall below expectations. Any of these events could cause the price of the ADSs to fall. If our revenues for a particular quarter are lower than expected, we may be unable to reduce our operating expenses and cost of revenues for that quarter by a corresponding amount, which would harm our operating results for that quarter relative to our operating results from prior quarters.
We may be the subject of anti-competitive, harassing or other detrimental conduct that could harm our reputation and cause us to lose users and customers.
In the future we may be the target of anti-competitive, harassing, or other detrimental conduct by third parties. Allegations, directly or indirectly against us or any of our executive officers, may be posted in internet chat-rooms or on blogs or websites by anyone, whether or not related to us, on an anonymous basis. The availability of information on social media platforms and devices is virtually immediate, as is its impact. Social media platforms and devices immediately publish the content their subscribers and participants post, often without filters or checks on the accuracy of the content posted. Information posted may be inaccurate and adverse to us, and it may harm our business, annual report or financial performance. The harm may be immediate without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction. In addition, such conduct may include complaints, anonymous or otherwise, to regulatory agencies. We may be subject to regulatory or internal investigation as a result of such third-party conduct and may be required to expend significant time and incur substantial costs to address such third-party conduct, and there is no assurance that we will be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time, or at all. Additionally, our reputation could be harmed as a result of the public dissemination of anonymous allegations or malicious statements about our business, which in turn may cause us to lose users and customers and adversely affect the price of the ADSs.
Non-compliance
on the part of third parties with whom we cooperate to conduct business, deterioration of their service quality or termination of their services, could disrupt our business and adversely affect our results of operations.
Our business partners, including publishers and third-party data service providers, may be subject to regulatory penalties or punishments because of their regulatory compliance failures, which may disrupt our business. Any legal liabilities of, or regulatory actions against, our business partners may affect our business activities and reputation and, in turn, our results of operations. For example, we collaborate with third-party data service providers who supplement our dataset and maintain a strict vetting process before engaging such third-party data service providers to ensure the integrity and quality data, but we cannot assure that these service providers have accessed and processed data in a proper and legal manners and any noncompliance on their part may cause potential liabilities to us and disrupt our operations.
We exercise no control over the third parties with whom we have business arrangements. If such third parties increase their prices, fail to provide their services effectively or in high quality, terminate their service or agreements or discontinue their relationships with us, we could suffer service interruptions, reduced revenues or increased costs, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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We have granted and may continue to grant share options or other equity incentives in the future, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.
We adopted a stock incentive plan in July 2014, or the 2014 Plan, a stock incentive plan in March 2017, or the 2017 Plan and a stock incentive plan in December 2021, or the 2021 Plan. Under the 2014 Plan, we are authorized to grant share awards for issuance of up to a maximum of 5,500,000 common shares. Under the 2017 Plan, as amended, we are authorized to grant awards for issuance of up to a maximum of 6,015,137 Class A common shares. Under the 2021 Plan, we are authorized to grant share awards for issuance of up to a maximum of 4,000,000 common shares. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, we recorded RMB47.3 million, RMB28.9 million and RMB30.2 million (US$4.7 million) in share-based compensation expenses, respectively. The amount of these expenses is based on the fair value of the share-based compensation awards we granted, and the recognition of unrecognized share-based compensation cost will depend on the forfeiture rate of our unvested restricted shares. Expenses associated with share-based compensation have affected our net income and may reduce our net income in the future, and any additional securities issued under share-based compensation schemes will dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders, including holders of the ADSs. We believe the granting of share-based compensation is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel, employees and consultants, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We may need additional capital, and financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.
We believe our cash and cash equivalents on hand will be sufficient to meet our current and anticipated needs for general corporate purposes for at least the next 12 months. We may, however, need additional cash resources in the future if we experience changes in business conditions or other developments. We may also need additional cash resources in the future if we find and wish to pursue opportunities for investment, acquisition, capital expenditure or similar actions. If we determine in the future that our cash requirements exceed the amount of cash and cash equivalents we have on hand, we may seek to issue equity or equity linked securities or obtain debt financing. The issuance and sale of additional equity would result in further dilution to our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could result in operating covenants that would restrict our operations. We cannot assure you that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.
A severe or prolonged downturn in the Chinese or global economy could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
The global macroeconomic environment is facing numerous challenges. The growth rate of the Chinese economy has gradually slowed since 2010 and the trend may continue. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. The conflict in Ukraine and the imposition of broad economic sanctions on Russia could raise energy prices and disrupt global markets. Unrest, terrorist threats, and the potential for war in the Middle East and elsewhere may increase market volatility across the globe. There have also been concerns about the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have economic effects. In particular, there is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to changing law and regulations regarding regulatory matters, corporate governance and public disclosure that have increased both our costs and the risk of
non-compliance.
We are subject to rules and regulations by various governing bodies, including, for example, the Securities and Exchange Commission, which is charged with the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded, and the various regulatory authorities in China and the Cayman Islands, and to new and evolving regulatory measures under applicable law. Our efforts to comply with new and changing laws and regulations have resulted in and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.
 
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Moreover, because these laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to our disclosure and governance practices. If we fail to address and comply with these regulations and any subsequent changes, we may be subject to penalty and our business may be harmed.
We have limited business insurance coverage.
The insurance companies in China currently offer limited business-related insurance products. We do not maintain business interruption insurance or general third-party liability insurance, nor do we maintain property insurance, product liability insurance or
key-man
insurance. We consider this practice to be reasonable in light of the nature of our business and the insurance products that are available in China and in line with the practices of other companies in the same industry of similar size in China. Any uninsured risks may result in substantial costs and the diversion of resources, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We face risks related to health epidemics, severe weather conditions and other outbreaks. Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the influenza A virus, Ebola virus, severe weather conditions or other epidemics or outbreaks. Health or other government regulations adopted in response to an epidemic, severe weather conditions such as snowstorms, floods or hazardous air pollution, or other outbreaks may require temporary closure of our offices. Such closures may disrupt our business operations and adversely affect our results of operations. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally.
In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally. In early 2020, in response to intensifying efforts to contain the spread of
COVID-19,
the Chinese government took a number of actions, which included extending the Chinese New Year holiday, quarantining individuals infected with or suspected of having
COVID-19,
prohibiting residents from free travel, encouraging employees of enterprises to work remotely from home and canceling public activities, among others. Customer demand has gradually recovered since the second quarter of 2020, and our business and financial condition have seen sequential growth for the second half of 2020. We cannot guarantee you that the
COVID-19
pandemic will not further escalate or have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, especially our financial condition, our cash flows or our prospects. Recently, there has been an increasing number of
COVID-19
cases, including the
COVID-19
Delta and Omicron variant cases, in multiple cities in China. The Chinese local authorities have reinstated certain measures to keep
COVID-19
in check, including varying levels of travel restrictions and
stay-at-home
orders. In March 2022, due to the spread of
COVID-19
in China, Chinese government imposed lockdown in certain cities and districts, including Shanghai. In addition, the highly-transmissible Delta and Omicron variants of
COVID-19
have caused authorities in various countries and regions to reimpose restrictions such as mask mandates, curfews and prohibitions on large gatherings. There remain significant uncertainties surrounding
COVID-19,
including the existing and new variants of
COVID-19,
the duration and severity of
COVID-19,
the extent and severity of new waves of outbreak in China and other countries, the development and progress of distribution of
COVID-19
vaccine and other medical treatment and the effectiveness of such vaccine and other medical treatment, and the actions taken by government authorities to contain the outbreak, all of which are beyond our control. Substantially all of our revenues and our workforce are concentrated in China. Consequently, our results of operations have been adversely affected, and could be further affected, to the extent that the
COVID-19
or any other epidemic harms the Chinese and global economy in general. Potential impacts include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
   
temporary closure of offices, travel restrictions or suspension of services of our customers and suppliers have negatively affected, and could continue to negatively affect, the demand for our services;
 
   
our customers in industries that are negatively impacted by the outbreak of
COVID-19,
including healthcare, travel, auto/transportation, and financial services sectors, may reduce their budgets on advertising and marketing, which may materially adversely impact our revenue from advertisement; and
 
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our customers may require additional time to pay us or fail to pay us at all, which could significantly increase the amount of accounts receivable and require us to record additional allowances for doubtful accounts.
Because of the uncertainty surrounding the
COVID-19
outbreak, as we will continue to incur costs for our operations, the financial impact related to the outbreak of and response to the coronavirus cannot be reasonably estimated at this time and our revenues during this period are difficult to predict.
We are also vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities. Fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures,
break-ins,
war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events may give rise to server interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide content and services on our platform.
Certain of our leasehold interests in leased properties have not been registered with the relevant PRC governmental authorities as required by relevant PRC laws. The failure to register leasehold interests may expose us to potential fines.
We have not registered certain of our lease agreements with the relevant government authorities. Under the relevant PRC laws and regulations, we may be required to register and file with the relevant government authority executed leases. The failure to register the lease agreements for our leased properties will not affect the validity of these lease agreements, but the competent housing authorities may order us to register the lease agreements in a prescribed period of time and impose a fine ranging from RMB1,000 to RMB10,000 for each
non-registered
lease if we fail to complete the registration within the prescribed timeframe.
We lease premises and may not be able to fully control the rental costs, quality, maintenance and our leasehold interest in these premises, nor can we guarantee that we will be able to successfully renew or find suitable premises to replace our existing premises upon expiration of the existing leases.
We lease all the premises used in our operations from third parties. We require the landlords’ cooperation to effectively manage the condition of such premises, buildings and facilities. In the event that the condition of the office premises, buildings and facilities deteriorates, or if any or all of our landlords fail to properly maintain and renovate such premises, buildings or facilities in a timely manner or at all, the operation of our offices could be materially and adversely affected.
Moreover, certain lessors have not provided us with valid ownership certificates or authorization of sublease for our leased properties. Under the relevant PRC laws and regulations, if the lessors are unable to obtain certificate of title because such real estates were built illegally or failed to pass the inspection, such lease contracts may be recognized as void. In addition, if our lessors are not the owners of the properties and they have not obtained consents from the owners or their lessors or permits from the relevant government authorities, our leases could be invalidated. If this occurs, we may have to renegotiate the leases with the owners or the parties who have the right to lease the properties, and the terms of the new leases may be less favorable to us.
As of the date of this annual report, we are not aware of any material claims or actions being contemplated or initiated by government authorities, property owners or any other third parties with respect to our leasehold interests in or use of such properties. However, we cannot assure you that our use of such leased properties will not be challenged.
Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.
Companies operating in China are required to participate in various government sponsored employee benefit plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payment obligations, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of our employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where we operate our businesses. The requirement of employee benefit plans has not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different locations. Our PRC entities have not made adequate employee benefit payments and we have recorded accruals for estimated underpaid amounts in our financial statements. We may be required to make up the contributions for these plans as well as to pay late fees and fines. If we are subject to late fees or fines in relation to the underpaid employee benefits, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
 
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Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure
If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating some of our business operations in China do not comply with PRC regulations relating to the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties, or be forced to relinquish our interest in those operations.
Foreign ownership of certain parts of our businesses including value-added telecommunications services is subject to restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. The PRC government regulates internet access, distribution of online information and online advertising through strict business licensing requirements and other government regulations. For example, foreign investors, with a few exceptions, are not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunications service provider and any such foreign investor must have experience in providing value-added telecommunications services overseas and maintain a good track record. On March 29, 2022, the Decision of the State Council on Revising and Repealing Certain Administrative Regulations, which will take effect on May 1, 2022, was promulgated to amend certain provisions of regulations including the Provisions on the Administration of Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises (2016 Revision), the requirement for major foreign investor to demonstrate a good track record and experience in operating value-added telecommunications businesses is deleted.
Aurora is a Cayman Islands exempted company and our PRC subsidiary, namely our WFOE, is a foreign-invested enterprise. Accordingly, our WFOE is not eligible to provide value-added telecommunications services in China. As a result, our variable interest entity in PRC, namely Hexun Huagu, holds value-added telecommunications business operation licenses as a value-added telecommunications service provider. We entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Hexun Huagu, or our VIE, and its shareholders, which enable us to (i) exercise effective control over our VIE, (ii) receive substantially all of the economic benefits of our VIE, and (iii) have an exclusive call option to purchase all or part of the equity interests and assets in our VIE when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we have control over and are the primary beneficiary of our VIE and hence consolidate its financial results into our consolidated financial statements under U.S. GAAP. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, we derived 98.6%, 97.7% and 95.0% of our external revenues from our VIE, respectively.
In the opinion of our PRC legal counsel, Han Kun Law Offices, (i) the ownership structure of our VIE in China and our WFOE are not in violation of applicable PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and (ii) the contractual arrangements between our WFOE, our VIE and its shareholders governed by PRC laws and regulations are valid, binding and enforceable, and will not result in any violation of applicable PRC laws and regulations. However, our PRC legal counsel has also advised us that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws and regulations. Accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may take a view that is contrary to the opinion of our PRC legal counsel.
However, Aurora is a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in our VIE and we conduct our operations in China through (i) our PRC subsidiary and (ii) our VIE with which we have maintained contractual arrangements. Investors in our Class A common shares or the ADSs thus are not purchasing equity interest in our consolidated affiliated entities in China but instead are purchasing equity interest in a Cayman Islands holding company. If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with our VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future, we and our VIE could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our holding company in the Cayman Islands, our VIE, and investors of Aurora face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with our VIE and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of our VIE and our company as a group.
There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the laws and regulations governing our and our VIE’s business, or the enforcement and performance of our contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders. These laws and regulations may be subject to change, and their official interpretation and enforcement may involve substantial uncertainty. New laws and regulations that affect existing and proposed future businesses may also be applied retroactively. Due to the uncertainty and complexity of the regulatory environment, we cannot assure you that we and our VIE would always be in full compliance with applicable laws and regulations, the violation of which may have adverse effect on our and our VIE’s business and our reputation.
 
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Although we believe we, our PRC subsidiary and our VIE are not in violation of current PRC laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that the PRC government would agree that our contractual arrangements comply with PRC licensing, registration or other regulatory requirements, with existing policies or with requirements or policies that may be adopted in the future. The PRC government has broad discretion in determining rectifiable or punitive measures
for non-compliance with
or violations of PRC laws and regulations. If the PRC government determines that we or our VIE do not comply with applicable law, it could revoke our VIE’s business and operating licenses, require our VIE to discontinue or restrict our VIE’s operations, restrict our VIE’ right to collect revenues, block our VIE’s websites, require our VIE to restructure our operations, impose additional conditions or requirements with which our VIE may not be able to comply, impose restrictions on our VIE’s business operations or on their customers, or take other regulatory or enforcement actions against our VIE that could be harmful to their business. Any of these or similar occurrences could significantly disrupt our or our VIE’ business operations or restrict our VIE from conducting a substantial portion of their business operations, which could materially and adversely affect our VIE’s business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of any of our VIE that most significantly impact its economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from any of our VIE, we may not be able to consolidate these entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In addition, our shares may decline in value or become worthless if we are unable to assert our contractual control rights over the assets of our PRC subsidiaries that conduct a significant part of our operations.
The approval, filing or other requirements of the China Securities Regulatory Commission or other PRC government authorities may be required under PRC law in connection with our issuance of securities overseas.
The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, purport to require offshore special purpose vehicles that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals and that have been formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets to obtain CSRC approval prior to publicly listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear. If CSRC approval under the M&A Rules is required, it is uncertain whether it would be possible for us to obtain the approval, and any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining CSRC approval for our future issuance of securities overseas would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC and other PRC regulatory agencies.
 
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Furthermore, the recently issued Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over “illegal securities activities” and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies, and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China- based overseas-listed companies, although such opinions did not specify the definition of “illegal securities activities.” On December 24, 2021, the CSRC published the draft Administrative Provisions of the State Council on the Overseas Issuance and Listing of Securities by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments), or the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, and the draft Measures for the Overseas Issuance and Listing of Securities Record-filings by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments), the Draft Overseas Listing Measures, for public comments. These draft regulations stipulate that PRC domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets directly or indirectly shall complete the filing procedures with and report relevant information to the CSRC. Pursuant to these draft rules, if the issuer meets the following conditions, its securities offerings and listing will be deemed as an “indirect overseas offering and listing by a PRC domestic company” and is therefore subject to the filing requirement: (i) the revenues, profits, total assets or net assets of the Chinese operating entities in the most recent financial year accounts for more than 50% of the corresponding data in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statements for the same period; (ii) the majority of senior management in charge of business operation are Chinese citizens or have domicile in PRC, and its principal place of business is located in PRC or main business activities are conducted in PRC. In addition, these draft rules prescribe that the domestic enterprises submit filing documents to CSRC within three business days after the submission of the application for overseas initial public offering, and after completing the filing procedures for an overseas initial public offering and listing, for the purposes of implementing and strengthening the CSRC’s supervision, the issuer will need to comply with continuous filing and reporting requirements after such offering and listing, among others, including the following: (i) reporting material events which arose prior to such offering and listing, (ii) filing for
follow-on
offerings after the initial offering and listing, (iii) filing for transactions in which the issuer issues securities to acquire assets, and (iv) reporting material events after the initial offering and listing. In a Q&A released on its official website, the respondent CSRC official indicated that the CSRC will start applying the filing requirements to new offerings and listings. New initial public offerings and refinancing by existing overseas listed Chinese companies will be required to go through the filing process. As for the other filings for the existing companies, the regulator will grant adequate transition period to complete their filing procedures. On April 2, 2022, the CSRC published the Provisions on Strengthening the Management of Confidentiality and Archives Related to the draft Overseas Issuance of Securities and Overseas Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Public Comments), or the Draft Archives Rules, for public comments. In the overseas listing activities of domestic companies, domestic companies, as well as securities companies and securities service institutions providing relevant securities services hereof, should establish a sound system of confidentiality and archival work, shall not disclose state secrets, or harm the state and public interests. Where a domestic company provides or publicly discloses to the relevant securities companies, securities service institutions, overseas regulatory authorities and other entities and individuals, or provides or publicly discloses through its overseas listing entity, any document or material involving any state secret or any work secret of organs and organizations, it shall report to the competent authority for approval in accordance with the law, and submit to the secrecy administration department for filing. Domestic companies shall not provide accounting records to an overseas accounting firm that has not performed the corresponding procedures. Securities companies and securities service organizations shall comply with the confidentiality and archive management requirements, and keep the documents and materials properly. Securities companies and securities service institutions that provide domestic enterprises with relevant securities services for overseas issuance and listing of securities shall keep such archives they compile within the territory of the PRC and shall not transfer such archives to overseas institutions or individuals, by any means such as carriage, shipment or information technology, without the approval of the relevant competent authorities. If the archives or duplicates of such archives are of important value to the state and society and needed to be taken abroad, approval shall be obtained in accordance with relevant provisions.
However, the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, the Draft Overseas Listing Measures and the Draft Archives Rules were released for public comment only, there remains substantial uncertainty, including but not limited to its final content, adoption timeline, effective date or relevant implementation rules. As of the date of this annual report, we cannot predict the impact of these regulations on maintain the listing status of our ADSs and/or other securities, or any of our future offerings of securities overseas.
In addition, on December 28, 2021, the CAC and several other regulatory authorities in China jointly promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022. Pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, (i) where the relevant activity affects or may affect national security, a CIIO that purchases network products and services, or an internet platform operator that conducts data process activities, shall be subject to the cybersecurity review, (ii) an application for cybersecurity review shall be made by an issuer who is an internet platform operator holding personal information of more than one million users before such issuer applies to list its securities on a foreign stock exchange, and (iii) relevant governmental authorities in the PRC may initiate cybersecurity review if they determine an operator’s network products or services or data processing activities affect or may affect national security. As the Cybersecurity Review Measures was newly issued, there remain uncertainties as to how it would be interpreted and enforced, and to what extent it may affect us.
If the CSRC or other relevant PRC regulatory agencies subsequently determine that prior approval is required for any of our future offerings of securities overseas or to maintain the listing status of our ADSs, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain such approval in a timely manner, or at all. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, not to proceed with such offering or maintain the listing status of our ADSs. If we proceed with any of such offering or maintain the listing status of our ADSs without obtaining these regulatory agencies’ approval to the extent it is required, or if we are unable to comply with any new approval requirements which might be adopted for offerings that we have completed prior to the publication of the above- referenced opinions, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from these regulatory agencies. These regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from offering of securities overseas into China or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of the ADSs.
 
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Furthermore, if there are any other approvals, filings and/or other administration procedures to be obtained from or completed with the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies as required by any new laws and regulations for any of our future proposed offering of securities overseas or the listing of the ADSs, we cannot assure you that we can obtain the required approval or complete the required filings or other regulatory procedures in a timely manner, or at all. Any failure to obtain the relevant approvals or complete the filings and other relevant regulatory procedures may subject us to regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business may be significantly affected by the newly enacted PRC Foreign Investment Law
On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress adopted the PRC Foreign Investment Law, which became effective on January 1, 2020 and replace three existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Wholly Foreign-Invested Enterprise Law of the PRC, the Sino-Foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law of the PRC and the Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law of the PRC, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The PRC Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. However, since it is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation. For example, the PRC Foreign Investment Law adds a
catch-all
clause to the definition of “foreign investment” so that foreign investment, by its definition, includes “investments made by foreign investors in China through other means defined by other laws or administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the State Council” without further elaboration on the meaning of “other means”. It leaves leeway for the future legislations promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. The most updated negative list, issued on December 27, 2021 and became effective on January 1, 2022, stipulates that any PRC domestic enterprise engaging in prohibited industries under the negative list shall obtain the consent of the relevant competent PRC authorities for overseas listing, and the foreign investors shall not participate in the operation and management of such enterprise, and the shareholding percentage of the foreign investors in such enterprise shall be subject to the relevant administrative provisions of the PRC domestic securities investment by foreign investors. Such negative list does not further elaborate whether existing overseas listed enterprise will be subject to such requirements. The staff of the National Development and Reform Commission, or the NDRC, addressed in an interview on December 27, 2021 that certain existing overseas listed enterprises whose foreign investors’ shareholding percentage exceed the aforementioned threshold are not required to make adjustment or deduction. It is unclear as to whether the aforesaid provisions will apply to the companies adopting contractual arrangements. It is therefore uncertain whether our corporate structure will be seen as violating the foreign investment rules as we are currently leverage the contractual arrangement to operate certain businesses in which foreign investors are prohibited from or restricted to investing. Furthermore, if future legislations prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangement, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. If we fail to take appropriate and timely measures to comply with any of these or similar regulatory compliance requirements, our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders for substantially all of our business operation, which may not be as effective as direct ownership.
Our VIE contributed 99.3%, 98.6% and 95.2% of our consolidated total net revenues for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders to conduct our business. These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our VIE. For example, our VIE and its shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to conduct our VIE’s operations in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests.
 
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If we had direct ownership of our VIE, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of our VIE, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance by our VIE and its shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over our VIE. However, the shareholders of our consolidated VIE may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate certain portions of our business through the contractual arrangements with our VIE. If any disputes relating to these contracts remains unresolved, we will have to enforce our rights under these contracts through the operations of PRC law and arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings and therefore will be subject to uncertainties in the PRC legal system. See “—Any failure by our VIE or its shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.” Therefore, our contractual arrangements with our VIE and it shareholders may not be as effective in ensuring our control over the relevant portion of our business operations as direct ownership would be.
Any failure by our VIE or its shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.
We refer to the shareholders of our VIE as its nominee shareholders because although they remain the holders of equity interests on record in our VIE, pursuant to the terms of the shareholder voting proxy agreement, each such shareholder has irrevocably authorized our company to exercise his rights as a shareholder of the VIE. However, if our VIE or its shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and claiming damages, which we cannot assure will be effective under PRC law. For example, if the shareholders of our VIE refuse to transfer their equity interest in our VIE to us or our designee if we exercise the purchase option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, or if they otherwise act in bad faith toward us, then we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform their contractual obligations.
All of these contractual arrangements are governed by and interpreted in accordance with PRC law, and disputes arising from these contractual arrangements between us and our variable interest entity will be resolved through arbitration in China. These disputes do not include claims arising under the United States federal securities law and thus the arbitration provisions do not prevent our shareholders from pursuing claims under the United States federal securities law. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. See “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system and changes in laws and regulations in China could adversely affect us.” Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a VIE should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC law, awards by arbitrators are final, which means parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award enforcement proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delays or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our VIE, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected.
Contractual arrangements in relation to our VIE may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our VIE owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment.
Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the VIE contractual arrangements were not entered into on an arm’s length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust the income of our VIE in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by our VIE for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase its tax liabilities without reducing our WFOE’s tax expenses. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on our VIE for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if our VIE’s tax liabilities increase or if it is required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.
 
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The shareholders of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
The shareholders of our VIE include Mr. Weidong Luo, Mr. Xiaodao Wang and Mr. Jiawen Fang. The shareholders of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may breach, or cause our VIE to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and our VIE, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control our VIE and receive economic benefits from them. For example, the shareholders may be able to cause our agreements with our VIE to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise any or all of these shareholders will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor.
Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between these shareholders and our company, except that we could exercise our purchase option under the exclusive option agreements with these shareholders to request them to transfer all of their equity interests in the VIE to a PRC entity or individual designated by us, to the extent permitted by PRC law. We rely on Mr. Luo, Mr. Wang and Mr. Fang to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands, which provide that directors owe a fiduciary duty to the company that requires them to act in good faith and in what they believe to be the best interests of the company and not to use their position for personal gains. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholders of our VIE, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.
The shareholders of our VIE may be involved in personal disputes with third parties or other incidents that may have an adverse effect on their respective equity interests in our VIE and the validity or enforceability of our contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders. For example, in the event that any of the shareholders of our VIE divorces his or her spouse, the spouse may claim that the equity interest of our VIE held by such shareholder is part of their community property and should be divided between such shareholder and his or her spouse. If such claim is supported by the court, the relevant equity interest may be obtained by the shareholder’s spouse or another third party who is not subject to obligations under our contractual arrangements, which could result in a loss of our effective control over the VIE. Similarly, if any of the equity interests of our VIE is inherited by a third party on whom the current contractual arrangements are not binding, we could lose our control over the VIE or have to maintain such control by incurring unpredictable costs, which could cause significant disruption to our business and operations and harm our financial condition and results of operations.
Although under our current contractual arrangements, it is expressly provided that all these agreements and the rights and obligations thereunder shall be equally effective and binding on the heirs and successors of the parties to the contractual arrangements, we cannot assure you that these undertakings and arrangements will be complied with or effectively enforced. In the event that any of them is breached or becomes unenforceable and leads to legal proceedings, it could disrupt our business, distract our management’s attention and subject us to substantial uncertainties as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.
We may rely on dividends paid by our PRC subsidiary to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to pay dividends to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business and to pay dividends to holders of the ADSs and our Class A common shares.
We are a holding company, and we may rely on dividends to be paid by our wholly-owned PRC subsidiary for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to the holders of the ADSs and our Class A common shares and service any debt we may incur. If our wholly owned PRC subsidiary incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us.
Under PRC laws and regulations, wholly foreign-owned enterprises in the PRC, such as our WFOE, may pay dividends only out of its accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise is required to set aside at least 10% of its
after-tax
profits each year, after making up previous years’ accumulated losses, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds, until the aggregate amount of such a fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. At the discretion of the board of director of the wholly foreign-owned enterprise, it may allocate a portion of its
after-tax
profits based on PRC accounting standards to staff welfare and bonus funds. These reserve funds and staff welfare and bonus funds are not distributable as cash dividends. Any limitation on the ability of our wholly-owned PRC subsidiary to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business.
 
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We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by our VIE that are material to the operation of certain portion of our business if the VIE goes bankrupt or becomes subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.
As part of our contractual arrangements with our VIE, our VIE holds certain assets that are material to the operation of certain portion of our business, including intellectual property and premise and value-added telecommunication business operation licenses. If our VIE goes bankrupt and all or part of their assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under the contractual arrangements, our VIE may not, in any manner, sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of their assets or legal or beneficial interests in the business without our prior consent. If our VIE undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, independent third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If the chops of our PRC subsidiary and our VIE are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised.
In China, a company chop or seal serves as the legal representation of the company towards third parties even when unaccompanied by a signature. Each legally registered company in China is required to maintain a company chop, which must be registered with the local Public Security Bureau. In addition to this mandatory company chop, companies may have several other chops which can be used for specific purposes. The chops of our PRC subsidiary and VIE are generally held securely by personnel designated or approved by us in accordance with our internal control procedures. To the extent those chops are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised and those corporate entities may be bound to abide by the terms of any documents so chopped, even if they were chopped by an individual who lacked the requisite power and authority to do so. In addition, if the chops are misused by unauthorized persons, we could experience disruption to our normal business operations. We may have to take corporate or legal action, which could involve significant time and resources to resolve while distracting management from our operations.
Risks Related to Doing Business in China
The approval and/or other requirements of the CSRC or other PRC governmental authorities may be required in connection with an offering under PRC rules, regulations or policies, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or how soon we will be able to obtain such approval.
The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, purport to require offshore special purpose vehicles that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals and that have been formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets to obtain CSRC approval prior to publicly listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear. If a governmental approval is required, it is uncertain how long it will take for us to obtain such approval, and, even if we obtain such approval, the approval could be rescinded. Any failure to obtain or a delay in obtaining the requisite governmental approval for an offering, or a rescission of such CSRC approval if obtained by us, may subject us to sanctions imposed by the relevant PRC regulatory authority, which could include fines and penalties on our and our VIE’s operations in China, restrictions or limitations on our ability to pay dividends outside of China, and other forms of sanctions that may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
 
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However, our PRC counsel has further advised us that there remains some uncertainty as to how the M&A Rules will be interpreted or implemented in the context of an overseas offering, and its opinions summarized above are subject to any new laws, rules and regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations in any form relating to the M&A Rules. We cannot assure you that relevant PRC governmental authorities, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion as our PRC counsel, and hence, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from them. Furthermore, relevant PRC governmental authorities promulgated the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities, which provided that the administration and supervision of overseas-listed China-based companies will be strengthened, and the special provisions of the State Council on overseas issuance and listing of shares by such companies will be revised, clarifying the responsibilities of domestic industry competent authorities and regulatory authorities. However, the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities were only issued recently, leaving uncertainties regarding the interpretation and implementation of these opinions. It is possible that any new rules or regulations may impose additional requirements on us. In addition, on December 28, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China issued the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022, according to which, among others, operators of “critical information infrastructure” or data processors holding over one million users’ personal information shall apply to the Cybersecurity Review Office for a cybersecurity review before any listing on a foreign stock exchange. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been involved in any investigations on cybersecurity review made by the Cyberspace Administration of China on such basis, and we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions in such respect. However, the governmental authorities may impose restrictions and penalties on our operations in China, such as the suspension of our apps and services, revocation of our licenses, or shutting down part or all of our operations, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from an offering into China or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of the ADSs. The PRC governmental authorities may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt an offering before settlement and delivery of the ADSs offered hereby. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, you do so at the risk that settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the PRC governmental authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals for filings, registrations or other kinds of authorizations for an offering, we cannot assure you that we can obtain the approval, authorizations, or complete required procedures or other requirements in a timely manner, or at all, or obtain a waiver of the requisite requirements if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver.
Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system and changes in laws and regulations in China could adversely affect us.
We conduct our business primarily through our PRC subsidiary and consolidated VIE in China. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. Our PRC subsidiary is subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China. The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions under the civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. In addition, any new or changes in PRC laws and regulations related to foreign investment in China could affect the business environment and our ability to operate our business in China.
From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. Any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into and could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all and may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such unpredictability towards our contractual, property and procedural rights could adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.
 
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